NB: This page is currently being edited and annotated. Edited sections show the Chinook Jargon words in italics, with direct translations, comments and annotations in purple. Purple items in italics within parentheses are direct translations of Chinook words or compounds where such translations are necessary. Where the words are shown by Shaw with their direct translated meaning, and/or are native or English loan-words that require no further comment, they are omitted from the parentheses. In other words, if there are several items in Shaw's Chinook translation, only one or two may be translated by way of explanation within the parentheses following. There are numerous OCR mistakes in unedited sections, and I have left intact idiosyncracies in Shaw's text (or Harper's transcription of it) - double entries, odd capitalizations, the occasional misspelling, etc. Comments and corrections are welcome.
Shaw's usages here must be understood to reflect the state of English meanings in 1908 (Harper Thomas made no changes in his 1934 reprinting of this reference), as well as the state of the Jargon and Shaw's own context within the frame of reference of the United States and the Jargon as it was spoken there, as well as English ideom of the period. Shaw's own cultural biases are also often evident, and many of the concepts represented seem to be English-oriented ones that he felt a need to find translations of, rather than actual Jargon usages per se. I have therefore added comments and annotations to some of the items below, including literal renderings of some of the Chinook phrases provided in translation of English concepts; my additions are given in purple, Shaw's definitions in the regular black. In time, I will augment this abecediary to the point where it will no longer be a simple reproduction and annotation from Shaw.
PACIFY-mamook kloshe. (to
make good, to make nice, i.e. to make behave, to make benign)
PACK-(n.) ikt kow. (one tie-up, i.e. a bundle)
PACK-(v.) lolo. (to carry) Shaw does not mean to pack as to put things in a bag or suitcase, but to pack as in to tote goods. To pack in the former sense would be mamook kow or mamook ikt kow.
PACKAGE-ikt kow. (one tie-up, i.e. a bundle)
PADDLE-(v.) mamook isick. (to use a paddle, to work a paddle, to do paddling)
PAID-potlatch pay; dolla. (to give pay; money) Shaw means that dolla may be substituted in the given compound in place of pay.
PAID-(passive) iskum pay; dolla. (to have pay, to receive pay; money) Shaw means that dolla may be substituted in the given compound in place of pay.
PAIN-sick; pain; addedah; anah.
PAINT, TO-mamook pent. (to use paint, to do painting, to make paint)
PAIR-mokst. (two, both)
PALACE-hyas kloshe house. (great good house, really nice house, big nice house) The use of hyas here, while still meaning large, carries the connotation of important, auspicious, or powerful.
PALE-t'kope. (white, whitish)
PAMPHLET-tenas book. (little book)
PANSY-kloshe tupso. (good grass, pretty plant) Kloshe tupso was used for all flowers.
PANT-skookum mamook wind. (strongly make breath, i.e. breathe strongly)
PANTHER-hyas pishpish. (big cat, great cat) Pishpish is a Puget Sound variant of the more widespread pusspuss. This term normally meant a cougar or mountain lion; the term panther in the frontier era, however, could refer to a cougar as well as to the large tropical cat this term describes today, which may have been occasionally in the country with circuses or zoos.
PAP-lip tatoosh. I think Shaw here means the nipple or aureole. Lip in its doubled form liplip means to bubble or to boil, and tatoosh means breast or milk (i.e. where milk bubbles?).
PAPPOOSE-tenas; pappoos (seldom used). (child, baby, small one, young one) The latter term was, I believe, imported from the Plains by the Metis voyageurs. I believe it is Cree or Ojibway in origin.
PARADE-(v.) mamook show; kloshe klatawa. (to make a show; to go well, i.e. to strut, to look good)
PARDON-mamook klahowya. (to do mercy, to make mercy) Shaw here does not mean the sense of pardon me, but rather to pardon someone.
PARENTS-papa pe mama. (father and mother)
PARK-kloshe illahee. (good land, good ground) Kloshe illahee also meant farmland. By park here, Shaw means a tended garden-type park, rather than the modern sense of a chunk of landscape set aside for recreation or preservation reasons.
PARSON-leplet. (priest) This word was used for Protestant clergy, despite its origin concerning the Catholic priesthood.
PARSONAGE-leplet yaka house. (priest his house)
PART-sitkum. (half, halfway) Although formally meaning half or halfway, sitkum could simply mean a part of something.
PARTAKE-iskum. (to take, to receive, to have some of)
PASS-(v.) klatawa; klatawa enati. (to go; to go across) To go past, as in to overtake, someone would probably be klatawa elip - to go before, to go on front; to pass someone in the opposite direction, or to pass by somewhere, would be klatawa kopa - go by.
PASTOR-leplet. (priest) This word was used for Protestant clergy, despite its origin concerning the Catholic priesthood.
PATERNAL-kahkwa papa. (like a father, as if a father)
PATH-ooahut. This was also spelt wayhut and waykut, and could mean a road as well as a trail, or anything in between.
PAW-kamooks; itchwoot yaka lepee (Bear, his foot). (dog; bear his foot) Shaw means that kamooks (or the name of any other animal) could be interchanged with itchwoot to give the meaning of a dog's paw rather than a bear's paw.
PAY-pay; potlatch dolla. (pay; money given) Shaw here means the noun pay rather than the verb to pay, although potlatch dolla could mean either the verb or noun. Pay, however, referred primarily to the sum paid; I do not think it meant to pay, which would have to be mamook pay or potlatch pay.
PEAS-le pwau; peas; lepwah.
PEEP-tenas nanitch. (little look, small look)
PELT-skin. The term lapel was also used, and was just as common. Skin also meant human skin as well as leather and tanned hides.
PEN-(for writing) pen; tzum stick. (marking stick, i.e. writing stick)
PENCIL-pencil; tzum stick. (marking stick, i.e. writing stick)
PENITENT-sick tumtum. (sick feel, to feel unwell) Shaw here means the adjective, rather than the noun/person. Sick tumtum is also used to refer to grief and grieving and other negative feelings.
PENITENTIARY-hyas skookum house. (big strong house) Shaw here means a large prison; skookum house alone meant a jail or a prison, as well as any kind of strong-house.
PENMAN-tzum man. (markings man, i.e. man who makes marks, man who writes)
PEOPLE-tillikum; tillikums. There may have been a slight difference in meaning here, with the latter meaning people in general, the former meaning a specific group or individual. Tillikum could be either singular or plural, however, while tillikums was always plural (or the possessive).
PERFECT-detote kloshe. (really good, correctly right, truly good)
PERFUME-lametsin kopa nose. (medicine for the nose) While of dubious medical value and only occasionally aromatherapeutic, perfume in the smelly confines of frontier dwellings and society would no doubt have served as medicine for the nose, i.e. making the beleaguered sense of scent feel better.
PERIL-mesachie mitlite. (evil is, i.e. there is danger) Cultus mitlite would also be approprpiate, though perhaps with less of a dire context.
PERMANENT-kwonesum mitlite. (forever existing, always will be, stay always)
PERMIT-wawa nowitka. (say yes)
PERPETUAL-knowesum. (forever, always, eternity)
PERSPIRATION-chuck mitlite kopa skin. (water there is on the skin) Perspiration is normally considered a noun, but this phrase appears to approximate a verb. See following.
PERSPIRT-chuck kopa skin. I am not sure that perspirt is a misprint; this may be a 19th century conjugation of to perspire, as in what has perspired. Elsewhere Shaw gives chuck kopa skin for sweat, which must be in the sense of a noun rather than a verb. See previous.
PERSEVERE, PERSIST-kwonesum; mamook. (always; do) I believe the inclusion of the semicolon must be a misprint, as the meaning of to persist or to persevere would only be possible by a combination of these two words.
PERSUADE-wawa pe toto. (speak and shake) This term sounds a bit aggressive, if rather expressive; perhaps Shaw meant that what is said would shake the person spoken to up, but the imagery of shaking someone by the shoulders is quite clear. Maybe he even means the person speaking is doing the shaking, as if vehemently or excitedly making an argument. On the other hand, this could all be a misprint and wawa pe tolo was intended, meaning speak and win or speak and gain. Elsewhere Shaw gives skookum wawa - strongly speak, strong words - for admonish and similar terms, so this may also have been suitable. Mamook tumtum - make to think, make feel - also seems possible.
PERUSE-mamook read. (to make read, to do reading) Elsewhere Shaw gives mamook tumtum kopa book or papah - to do thinking with a book or papers - which is tantamount to the same thing, although perhaps a bit heavier in meaning and tone.
PETRIFIED-chako stone. (to become stone, turned to stone) Shaw does not mean petrified as in to be terribly afraid, which would more likely be kwass mitlite kahkwa chako stone - is afraid as if turned to stone.
PETTICOAT-kalakwahtie; keekwulee coat kopa klootchman; petticoat; kalakwapte. (under coat for woman) Kalakwahtie and kalakwapte have their origin in the same-named under-bark of certain conifers (cedar, I believe), which were used to make garments for native women in pre-contact days; either came to mean any woman's petticoat or dress.
PHOTOGRAPH-tzum seeowist. (marking face, i.e. image of a face) This same term was used for postage stamps, which of course were often images of faces. Most photographs of the day would have been portraits, of course. The use of kahkwa picture for sign suggests that tzum picture may have been appropriate for a landscape photo or other non-portrait image.
PHYSIC-lametsin. (medicine) Physic is archaic English, referring to a tonic or prescription or chemist's concoction.
PICK-(n.) pick; (v.) iskum; ticky. (to have, to take; to want, to desire, to like, to select) By the noun here, Shaw means the workman's tool rather than something selected.
PICNIC-muckamuck heehee. (eating fun, recreational dinner)
PICTURE-tzum; papah. (marking, paper) Anything made of paper or printed could be either tzum or papah. The use of kahkwa picture for sign, however, suggests that picture itself may have been quite correctly used in the Jargon.
PIECE-sitkum. (half, halfway) Although formally meaning half or halfway, sitkum could simply mean a piece or a part of something.
PIETY-kloshe tumtum kopa Saghalie Tyee. (good feeling towards God, good feeling by/with God)
PIG-cosho; tenas cosho. (little hog, little pig) The latter would be most appropriate for a piglet, or for a smaller breed.
PIGEON-pigeon; kwass kalakala. (afraid bird)
PILE-(n.) hiyu. (many, lots of)
PILOT-pilot; man yaka mamook cooley. (man who makes run, i.e. man who does the run, man who makes it go) The sense of the latter phrase appears to mean someone who runs a vessel through a specific course or route.
PINE-lagome stick. (pitch tree)
PIPE-la peep; pipe.
PITCHY-la gome mitlite. (pitch is, i.e. there is pitch)
PITY-(v.) mamook klahowya. (to make mercy, to do mercy, to give alms)
PLACE-(his) kah yaka mitlite. (where he lives, where he is)
PLAIN-(n.) kloshe illahee. (good land) That is, land you can do something with. In the mountainous Northwest, only the warm valley bottoms and other flatlands and lowlands were suitable for farming or other settlement. Kloshe illahee also means farmland as well as valley (i.e. valley bottom).
PLAIN-(adj.) kloshe; delate. (good, right; straight, true, pure) By plain here, Shaw does not mean simple or unadorned, but rather straightforward or direct. Simple is a possible meaning, however, depending on context.
PLAN-(n.) tumtum. (thought, intention, idea)
PLAN-(v.) mamook tumtum. (to think, to intend)
PLATE-la siet; plate.
PLAY-(n.) heehee. (fun, laughter, games)
PLAY-(v.) mamook heehee. (to make laughter, to make fun, to do games)
PLAYHOUSE-heehee house. (fun house) This also could seem to mean tavern or whorehouse. Heehee house kopa tenas - fun house for children - might be more precise.
PLAY WITH STRINGED INSTRUMENT-mamook tuletule. (to use a string instrument) To play a wind instrument would be mamook tuttut; to play any instrument in general, to make music, or to ring a bell would be mamook tintin.
PLEAD-skookum wawa. (strong words) Skookum ask or skookum wawa ask or skookum mamook ask all seem likely as well as a bit more accurate, as skookum wawa can mean to scold, to admonish, etc.
PLEASANT-please; kloshe. Kloshe - good, nice - seems more typically Jargon than please. Shaw must have had a certain context in mind here in order to cite please, which must have been used in a compound of some kind.
PLEASED-youtl; kwatl. (proud, happy) Note the difference between kwatl - pleased - and kwotl or kwutl, which mean to press or to squeeze or to push. An alternate spelling of kwatl may be kwelth, which Shaw gives elsewhere as meaning proud, i.e. equivalent to youtl.
PLENTIFUL-plenty; hiyu. (many, much, lots of)
PLOW, PLOUGH-(n.) le shalloo; plow; klugh.
PLOW, PLOUGH-(v.) mamook plow; mamook kokshut illahee; klugh illahee. (to use a plow; to make broken the ground, i.e. to break land; plow the earth) I think that le shalloo, plow, and klugh may be used interchangeably in the expressions given.
PLURAL-hiyu. (many, lots of) Shaw means that to specify or emphasize the plural, hiyu would be used as a modifier.
POLE-la pehsh; pole.
POND-memaloose chuck. (dead water) Shaw here seems to mean only stagnant water, rather than a small body of standing fresh water, which could be tenas chuck or perhaps tenas lelak.
PONDER-mamook tumtum. (to make thoughts, to do thinking)
POOL-tenas chuck. (little water, i.e. small body of water)
POOR-halo ikta; klahowyum. (without anything; miserable, destitute)
POPULAR-kloshe kopa hiyu tillikums. (good for many people) Ticky kopa hiyu tillikums - wanted/liked by many people - also seems likely.
POPULATION-tillikums. Tillikums is almost always plural, and refers to people in general, rather than to a specific people or person(s).
PORK-cosho; cosho itlwillie. (pig, pig flesh, pig meat) As in many languages, the name of an animal and the term for its meat could be the same in the Jargon, as with deer/venison, calf/veal, cattle/beef, etc.
POSSESS-mitlite. (to be, to stay, to rest, to exist, to be alive) I suspect that Shaw's context of possess here may be a period one slightly different from to own. To have or to hold would normally be iskum, which is also given for to own. Elsewhere Shaw gives mitlite for to wear (clothes), so perhaps by possess here he means to be possessing of certain faculties, or self-possession, or something along those lines.
POSSIBLE-skookum kopa. (able to, strong towards, i.e. capable of)
POSTMASTER-tyee kopa papah house. (chief/boss of the post office) Papah house - paper house - was ideomatic for post office. Tyee was used for any official or person of rank.
POSTPONE-wawa "alki mamook". (say "do it later") I don't know why Shaw didn't also cite wawa tomollah - to say tomorrow or wawa tomollah mamook - say do it tomorrow - which seem equivalent.
POTENT-skookum. (strong, powerful)
POUND-pound; till. (weight, heavy) To pound would be mamook kokshut - to hit, to smite - and an English pound, as in currency, would be Kingchautsh dolla.
POUR-mahsh; wagh. (to discharge, to put out; to pour out)
POVERTY-klahowum. (misery, destitution) Klahowum is a misprint; klahowyum was intended. The -um spelling was only a convention; other than in print this word was indistinguishable from the klahowya spelling used when a greeting was meant.
POWDER-polallie. Polallie also means flour and sand.
POWER-skookum. (strength, big, powerful)
PRACTICE-mamook. (to do, to use) More conveying the sense of to rehearse might be mamook weght pe weght - do over and over. perhaps with kopa mamook elip kloshe - so as to do better - attached on the end.
PRAIRIE-kloshe illahee; tupso illahee. (good land, grass land) That is, land you can do something with. In the mountainous Northwest, only the warm valley bottoms and other flatlands and lowlands were suitable for farming or other settlement; much of the Interior of Washington is prairie, and there is a similar grassland in the Rocky Mountain Trench astride the Canadian-American border known as St. Joseph's Prairie. Kloshe illahee also means farmland as well as valley (i.e. valley bottom).
PRAIRIE WOLF-talapus; hyas opoots talapus. (Pig tail wolf). (coyote) What is in brackets seems a misprint; big tail wolf was meant. Coyote are notable for their large, bushy tails.
PRAISE-wawa mahsie. (say thanks, give thanks) Shaw's context here is religious. To praise someone would be mamook kloshe wawa kopa - to say good words about/to.
PRAY-wawa kopa Saghalie Tyee. (speak to God, words for God)
PRAYER-wawa kopa Saghalie Tyee; plie; laprier; talapusha. (words for God, speech to God) Talapusha may be related to the paramount significance of Coyote - talapus - in the indigenous beliefs of many native peoples, i.e. words addressed to Coyote. It may have been used for Christian prayer, but its origins seem decidedly "pagan".
PREACHER-leplet. (priest) This word was used for Protestant clergy, despite its origin concerning the Catholic priesthood.
PRECIOUS-hyas kloshe; hyas mahkook. (very good, greatly good; big purchase, i.e. very expensive) The former could mean precious in the affectionate or personal sense, or very good to have; both terms could mean very expensive.
PRECISE-delate. (straight, true, correct, exact)
PREFER-elip ticky. (more want, like first, like best)
PREGNANT-mitlite tenas kopa yaka belly. (to be with child in her belly) This is one of the instances were mitlite can mean to have or to possess.
PREPARE-mamook kloshe. (to make good, to do well) Mamook kloshe also means to fix, to repair, to mend, to heal, etc.
PRESENT-(n.v.) cultus potlatch. (meaningless gift, useless gift) This compound may mean both noun and verb. The sense here is of humility in the receiver, the giver, and/or the gift itself. It appears that potlatch, which technically means to give or to present or any object given, by itself carried a meaning of counter-obligation that the word cultus obviates by removing the sense of worth from the gift, or the giver.
PRESENTLY-alki; winapie. Both terms are used to refer to the immediate (or distant) future and may be translated soon. Laly alki means very soon, and by-by was also used to mean the immediate (but not the distant) future.. Tenas by-by - a little while - also means very soon and is more or less equivalent to laly alki.
PRESERVE-kloshe nanitch. (watch well, i.e. guard, protect) To preserve goods or food might be mamook mitlite kwonesum - make be forever, keep forever - or something similar.
PRESIDENT-tyee kopa Washington. (Chief at Washington) President of a company, if there were need for such a term, would simply be tyee, as with any high official or personage of rank.
PRESS-mamook kwotl. (to make pressed, to make squeeze, to push) Another spelling of kwotl is kwutl; note that there is a difference from kwatl or kwelth, which are equivalent to youtl in meaning proud or happy.
PRETEND-halo delate mamook; wawa. (not truly do; speak) Shaw means that wawa may be substituted for mamook, depending on whether the pretense in in action or in words.
PREVAIL-tolo. (to win, to gain)
PRICE-(what) kunsih dolla. (how many dollar, how much money)
PRICK-mamook kahkwa needle. (to do like a needle, to do as with a needle) Presumably mamook kahkwa tupshin could also be used.
PROUD-youtl tumtum. (to feel proud, to feel spirited)
PRIME-elip. (first, best, most)
PRINT-mamook tzum. (to make marks, i.e. to do writing)
PRIOR-elip. (first, before, best, most)
PRISON-skookum house. (strong house, big house) This compound was used for jails and prisons as well as any other kind of strong-house.
PRISONER-tillikum kopa skookum house. (person in the strong house, person in the big house)
PRIVATE-kopet ikt. (only one, alone) Depending on context, this ideom could be kopet kunamoxt or kopet mokst - only the two, only both - kopet klone, kopet okoke lakit - only three, only those four, etc.
PROBABLY-klonas nowitka. (maybe yes)
PROBABLY NOT-klonas halo. (maybe not)
PROCLAIM, PROCLAMATION-wawa. (speak, say, speech) An important or lengthy speech or proclamation could be hyas wawa.
PROFANE-wake kloshe kopa Saghalie Tyee. (not good to God, not pleasing to God)
PROFIT-tolo. (to win, to gain)
PROGENITOR-ahnkuttie papa. (ancient father, old-time father) In a conceptual sense, and as popularly translated into English in renderings of Sioux and other native legendary lore, this term could be translated as grandfather although it would not be used as such in the familial sense.
PROHIBIT-mamook stop; mamook kopet. (to make stop, to make cease, i.e. to prevent) Wawa wake mamook - say do not do - also seems appropriate.
PROMISE-delate wawa. (straight words, true talk)
PROMPT-hyak. (quick, swift)
PROPHET-leplet yaka wawa elip; plopet. (priest who says before, i.e. priest who predicts)
PROSPER-tolo. (to win, to gain)
PROTECT-kloshe nanitch. (watch well, i.e. guard, watch out for, escort)
PROUD-youtl; kwelth; youtl tumtum. (to feel proud, to feel spirited) Kwelth appears to be equivalent to kwatl, which Shaw gives elsewhere for pleased.
PROVE-delate kumtux. (truly understand, really know, understood straightly) The active sense here must be mamook delate kumtux; the passive chako delate kumtux; either the passive or the active may also be mitlite delate kumtux or iskum delate kumtux. Without mamook, chako, mitlite, or iskum, delate kumtux appears to mean proven or at least only prove to oneself.
PROVIDE-iskum iktas; kloshe nanitch. (to have goods; to watch well, i.e. to protect, to take care of) I am unsure of the context of iskum iktas here. Potlatch iktas - to give belongings, etc. - seems more appropriate.
PROVIDED, THAT-spose. (if, suppose) Shaw's comma may be superfluous, although that provided seems possible as an ideom in English of the time.
PROVOKE-mamook solleks. (to make angry, to cause anger)
PROVOKE-(passive) chako solleks. (to become angry, to come to anger)
PROW-nose kopa boat, ship. (nose of a boat, ship) Shaw means that ship may be substituted for boat depending on the craft in question.
PROWL-cultus klatawa. (aimless going, uesless movement) This may be an instance where cultus has a connotation of malicious, rather than useless or aimless. More descriptive would be kapswalla klatawa - to move stealthily.
PUBLIC-kloshe kopa konaway tillikums. (good for all people)
PUBLISH-mamook kumtux. (to make known) Shaw's meaning of publish here is specific, as in to make something public. To publish a book or other publication would be mamook kopa papah - make on paper - or mamook book - make a book - or something similar.
PUGILIST-man yaka ticky pight. (man who likes to fight, man who wants to fight) Presumably man yaka ticky puk-puk would also be correct, and man yaka kumtux puk-puk - man who understands fistfighting - would be even more accurate.
PUGNACIOUS-ticky pight. (likes to fight, wants to fight) Presumably ticky puk-puk - likes boxing, wants to box - would also be appropriate.
PUKE-muckamuck yaka kilapie; kilapie muckamuck; mahsh yaka muckamuck klahanie kopa yaka lapush. (food it comes back; reverse eating; to throw his food out from his mouth) Shaw gives wagh, mahsh muckamuck, and muckamuck killapie for to vomit. At least one of the senses here for puke - muckamuck yaka killapie (food that coms back) may be a noun rather than a verb.
PULL-haul. Or mamook haul.
PULL OFF-mamook haul; mamook tlak. (to make pull, to make taken off) Elsewhere Shaw gives these two (with tlak spelled tlak) plus mamook klah and mahsh as meaning to take off or to take out.
PUP, PUPPY-tenas kahmooks. (little dog, baby dog)
PURCHASE-mahkook. Mahkook essentially means to do business, and can mean both to buy and to sell. To sell is specified by the compound mahsh mahkook, to buy by the compound iskum mahkook. Other compounds are also possible, with varying meanings. Huyhuy also means to do business, but is more in the context of bartering and trade than in buying and selling goods for money.
PURE-delate kloshe. (truly good, correctly right)
PURPLE-wake siah klale. (not far from black)
PURPOSE-tumtum. (thought, idea, intent, to think, to feel, to intend) In semi-archaic English, purpose can be a verb as well as a noun.
PURSE-dolla yaka lesak; lesak kopa dolla. (money its sack; sack for money)
PURSUE-klatawa kimta. (Go after) (go behind) Shaw gives mamook hunt for to hunt. Klatawa kimta kopa iskum - follow behind to take, i.e. to catch - gives a more immediate context for to pursue.
PUSH-mamook push; kwutl. (to make push) Shaw means that kwutl (also spelled kwotl) - to push, to squeeze, to press - may be used in combination with mamook in place of push; in fact it need not be and may be used by itself with the same meaning. Note that kwult/kwotl is distinct from kwatl or kwelth, which means proud or happy and is equivalent to youtl.
PUT-mahsh. This is one of the main meanings of mahsh, which also means to throw, to put out, to discharge, to expel, to send, etc. plus a wide variety of idemoatic meanings in combinations.
PUTRID-humm. Shaw's context here is purely one of smell. Rot and rotten are conveyed by poolie and lotten, and by mamook (or chako) poolie and mamook (or chako) lotten. It is not incidental that putrid and pourri - the French source for poolie - share the same Latin root.
PUTRIFY-chako humm. (to become smelly) See previous.
PUZZLE-(v.) halo klap tumtum. (to not find meaning, to not find a thought)