NB: This page is currently being edited and annotated. Edited sections show the Chinook Jargon words in italics, with direct translations, comments and annotations in purple. Purple items in italics within parentheses are direct translations of Chinook words or compounds where such translations are necessary. Where the words are shown by Shaw with their direct translated meaning, and/or are native or English loan-words that require no further comment, they are omitted from the parentheses. In other words, if there are several items in Shaw's Chinook translation, only one or two may be translated by way of explanation within the parentheses following. There are numerous OCR mistakes in unedited sections, and I have left intact idiosyncracies in Shaw's text (or Harper's transcription of it) - double entries, odd capitalizations, the occasional misspelling, etc. Comments and corrections are welcome.
Shaw's usages here must be understood to reflect the state of English meanings in 1908 (Harper Thomas made no changes in his 1934 reprinting of this reference), as well as the state of the Jargon and Shaw's own context within the frame of reference of the United States and the Jargon as it was spoken there, as well as English ideom of the period. Shaw's own cultural biases are also often evident, and many of the concepts represented seem to be English-oriented ones that he felt a need to find translations of, rather than actual Jargon usages per se. I have therefore added comments and annotations to some of the items below, including literal renderings of some of the Chinook phrases provided in translation of English concepts; my additions are given in purple, Shaw's definitions in the regular black. In time, I will augment this abecediary to the point where it will no longer be a simple reproduction and annotation from Shaw.
is made in the sense of anger, not as in the sense of insane,
which would be pelton or perhaps lemolo. The latter
would mean deranged or gone wild.
NAILS-le cloo; nail.
(hard wood) Kahnaway stick - acorn tree - was
MADAM-klootchman. This is not meant as a form of address, at least not to my knowledge. Shaw here is simply giving the term for woman or female. A madam in a bordello might be boss klootchman or tyee klootchman, but those terms would carry this meaning only in the appropriate context - otherwise they would mean the boss' woman or chief's wife; the latter term was sometimes used in British/Canadian territories for the Queen, although more fittingly as hyas tyee klootchman. A female chief would have been (I think) klootchman tyee.
MAGISTRATE-tyee. Tyee was used for any high-ranking official. More specific in this instance would by tyee kopa court.
MAGNIFICENT-delate hyas kloshe. (really very good, truly very good)
MAIZE-corn; esalth. Corn was used for "white man's corn"; esalth was used for Indian corn, which is less domesticated and has smaller ears and less delicate nibs, but which was fiarly common among lowland tribes south of the Fraser and Straits, especially in the Columbia Valley and Basin.
MAJORITY-elip hiyu. (more than enough, the first many) That is, in the latter case with hiyu being taken to mean many, the first in order of size of two groups of people or objects. The context of hiyu here is better interpreted as enough rather than many.
MALICE-mesachie tumtum; solleks. (evil think, evil feel; anger) That is, to intend evil.
MALLARD DUCK-hahlhaht. This must be a typographical error. Under duck, Shaw gives both hahlhahl and hahthaht. Other lexicons show hahthaht as specific for the mallard.
MANAGE-tolo; mamook. (win; do) Mamook kahkwa boss or mamook boss or something similar might be more specific. I think Shaw's meaning here must have been along the lines of I can manage, i.e. to accomplish something successfully.
MANGLE-hiyu mamook cut. (to make many cuts, to cut many times) I can't see why mamook kokshut or hyas mamook kokshut might not also have been appropriate.
MANKIND-konaway tillikums. (all people, people everywhere, everyone)
MANNER-kahkwa kwanesum yaka mamook. (like always he does, hea always acts like that) i.e. habitual behaviour.
MAPLE-isick stick. (paddle wood) Maple, like ash, was a preferred wood for making paddles.
MARBLE-kloshe stone. (good stone) That is, a stone desired by white men, a stone that is good to find.
MARE-klootchman kuitan. (female horse, woman horse) Also klootchman cayoosh.
MARK-(v.) mamook tzum.
MARKET-mahkook house. The sense here is of course not the modern, abstract one, but a reference to a store. Outdoor markets of the kind common in sunny countries were of course unknown in this region.
MASK-stick seeowist. (wooden face)
MASSACRE-(v.) cultus mamook memoloose. (to wantonly make dead, to kill wantonly) The sense of cultus here is both in terms of wastage and of wrong-doing. The noun for massacre would have been based on, perhaps, hiyu mamook memaloose - to kill many people.
MASS-(ceremony of) la messe.
MAST-ship stick. (ship wood, ship tree) The term mitwhit stick - standing tree - would be more specific, especially for a mainmast; ship stick could also mean wood used in shipbuilding.
MAT-kliskwiss. Note the distinction from kwiskwis - squirrel.
MATERNAL-kahkwa mama. (like a mother, motherly)
MATRON-tyee klootchman. (chief woman, important woman)
MATURE-piah. (fire) I have not seen this word with this meaning before, except in the compound context of piah lapome - fire apple, i.e. red apple - i.e. Shaw is meaning mature as in ripe. Other meanings of mature would have to be derived from context.
MAXIMUM-elip hiyu kopa konaway. (more many of everything)
MAYOR-tyee kopa town. (chief of a town)
MEADOW-tupso illahee. (grass land, grassy land)
MEAN-delate cultus; wake kloshe. (truly bad; not good) The connotation here of cultus is evil, rather than the more typical worthless or meaningless.
MEASURE, TO-tahnim; mamook measure.
MEDICINE-la metsin. Indian medicine would be referred to with tamanass/tamahnawis - magic.
MEDITATE-mamook tumtum. (to make feelings, to do thinking)
MEEK-kloshe; halo solleks; kwan. (good; not angry; calm)
MEET-chako kunamokst. (to come together)
MELT-chako chuck; chako kahkwa chuck; chako klimmin. (to become water; to become like water; to become soft)
MEMORY-tumtum. (mind, thought, feeling)
MEND, TO-mamook tip-ahin. (to do with a needle, to use a needle)
MENTAL-kopa tumtum. (by thinking, by mind)
MENTION-wawa. (speak, say)
MERCHANDISE-iktas. (stuff, belongings, clothing)
MERCHANT-mahkook man. (sell man, salesman)
MERCHANTABLE-kloshe kopa mahkook. (good for selling, easy to sell)
MERCIFUL-(to be) MERCY-(to have) mamook klahowya. (to do mercy, to make mercy) Shaw gives both these contexts on the same line; the same Chinook phrase being used for both.
MESSAGE-(verbal) wawa. (word) This is a similar context to English, as in he brought word or he sent us word.
MESSAGE-(written) papah. This appears to be a misprint, as the prononciation is more like the conventional pepah.
METAL, METALLIC-chikamin; kahkwa chikamin. (metal, like metal)
METROPOLIS-tyee town. (chief town, important town)
MIDDAY-sitkum sun. (mid-day, halfway of day)
MIDDLE, THE-katsuk; sitkum.
MIDNIGHT-sitkum polaklie. (middle of night)
MIDSUMMER-sitkum kopa waum illahee. (halfway through the warm land)
MIDST-kunamokst. (together) Shaw here means midst in the context of in the midst of a group, as opposed to in the middle of a place, which would be katsuk or sitkum.
MIGHT-(n.) skookum; (imp. of may; klonas). I can see that might as the imperfect of may could well also be spose depending on context. As for the context of skookum, in the sense of power or strength, the meaning of mighty would probably have been conveyed by hyas or, more pronouncedly, hyas skookum.
MIGRATE-klatawa. (move, go)
MILD-kloshe. Kwann might also be used depending on context.
MILKEY-kahkwa tatoosh. (like milk)
MILL-moola. This is a noun form only. I am not sure that mamook moola would suffice for a verb, as it can mean to build a mill; more likely would have been chako moola - to become milled.
MIMIC-mamook kahkwa. (to make like, to do similarly)
MIND, THE- tumtum. Tumtum was also used to mean the heart; the two concepts were not distinguishable in local culture of the day.
MINE-illahee kah chikamin mitlite. (land where metal is) This is a noun form only, and rather awkward; more likely the English word mine would simply have been used, with mamook mine being used to mean to mine. Mamook chikamin might also have been used for a verb, but this could also mean to smelt.
MINGLE-klatawa kunamokst; mamook kunamokst; mahsh kunamokst. (go together; make together; throw/put together) The last context is relatively archaic in modern English, as in to mingle ingredients (rather than to mix).
MINISTER- leplet. This term was originally derived in reference to Catholic (French) priests only; it was extended to other clergy when they became evident on the scene. Doctin - doctor - was also used for protestant clergy, however, as might have been any native adaption of reverend.
MINOR-tenas; elip tenas. (small; more small) I do not think Shaw's usage here intends the modern sense involving the age of majority of young people, although the usage tenas would still have been the same. Shaw's intent here seems to be that of lesser.
MISCHIEF-cultus mamook. (bad deed, worthless deed) This phrase carries less negative impact than would mesachie mamook. and more means a prank or careless activity than a criminal act.
MISCONDUCT-mesachie mamook. (bad deed, evil deed) This phrase carries much more negative impact than cultus mamook. The meaning here is definitely one of ill intent or deliberate disobeyance.
MISPRONOUNCE-halo delate wawa; tseepie wawa; huloima wawa. (to straight speak; mistake speak; strangely speak) Each of these could well mean something different - a legend or a fib; something said in error; a foreign language or something strange being said.
MISSIONARY- leplet. This term was originally derived in reference to Catholic (French) priests only; it was extended to other clergy when they became evident on the scene. Doctin - doctor - was also used for protestant clergy, however, as might have been any native adaption of reverend.
MISTAKE-(v.) mamook tseepie.
MISTAKE-(n.) tseepie mamook.
MISTY-tenas snass. Smoke or kahkwa smoke could also be used, although smoke would more mean a thick fog; tenas smoke could mean a lesser one.
MISUNDERSTAND-halo kumtux. (not understand) Wake kumtux could also have been used, as might kumtux tseepie. which more would mean to have understood the wrong thing, rather than to not have understood at all.
MIX-mamook kunamokst; mamook klimmin. (to make together; to make smooth) The latter sense seems to have to do with ingredients in food; the former could mean nearly anything related to the English meaning of mix.
MOCK-mamook shem; mamook heehee. (to make shame, to shame; to make a joke, to make fun of)
MODERATE-wake hyak. (not fast, not swiftly) Shaw here is of course only referring to moderate speed. The Chinook terms for moderation in other contexts would vary, and probably employ words such as kloshe, kwann, and perhaps cultus.
MODEST-kloshe. (good, proper) Shaw's meaning here has to do with the Christian virtues, someone possessing of modesty being a good person. Halo youtl - without pride - might be more specific to the usual meaning in modern English., or yaka wake mamook hyas wawa - he doesn't make big talk.
MOISTURE-tenas chuck. (little water)
MOLASSES-melass; silup, molassis.
MONDAY-ikt sun. (first day, day one) i.e. after Sunday.
MONEY-chikamin; dolla. (metal; dollar)
MONTHLY-ikt moon-ikt moon. (one month-one month) i.e. once a month.
MOONLIGHT: MOONSHINE-moon yaka light. (moon its light)
MOOSE-ulchey; hyas mowitch. I have not seen the word ulchey anywhere else. This may be a Lower Columbia word; hyas moolock was in use farther north, as was the original Cree moose.
MORAL-kloshe. (good, proper) Again, Shaw here is speaking in reference to the Christian virtues, a moral person being a good one.
MORE-weght; elip hiyu. (again, still; more many)
MORNING-tenas sun. (little day)
MOSS-tupso. This normally meant only grass, although it appears to have been used in reference to any green growth, from moss to flowers.
MOSQUITO-melakwa; dago. I have to wonder about the derivation of the latter word, given its associations in English.
MOST-elip hiyu kopa konaway. (more many of everything)
MOTHER-mama; naah; naha.
MOTHERLESS-halo mama. (without a mother)
MOTHERLY-kahkwa mama. (like a mother)
MOUNTAIN-la monti, stone illahee; lamotai. (stone land, land of stone)
MOURN-cly tumtum. (cry feeling)
MOUSE-hoolhool; cultus hoolhool. Cultus hoolhool distinguishes the meaning from hyas hoolhool - a rat.
MOUTH-la push; la boos.
MOVE-tenas mahsh; mamook move. (little throw; to make move) Both of these are in the active sense; the passive would simply be klatawa.
MOW-mamook cut; mamook tlkope. (to make cut) More precise would be, for example, mamook cut tupso or mamook cut tupso illahee.
MOWER-machine kopa mamook cut hay. (machine to make cut hay) A modern lawn mower would more likely be machine kopa mamook cut tupso; Shaw's meaning here is of an agricultural implement for cutting hay-fields.
MUCH-hiyu; hiyu. Shaw makes this repetition, which appears to be a typographical error; I believe the second was intended to be hyiu, which is one of the common variant spellings of this word. Although doubling of hiyu - hiyu hiyu - would mean very, very much, this does not appear to be Shaw's intent, as the semi-colon was there in the original edition.
MUD-mud; klimmin illahee. (smooth earth) The latter would more seem to mean clay. Chuck illahee seems as likely a usage for mud as anything else.
MUDDY-(muddy water) illahee mitlite kopa chuck. (Land is with water). The translation is Shaw's; I would have used earth in place of land.
MUDDY-(muddy ground) chuck mitlite kopa illahee (Water is with Land). The translation is Shaw's; I would have used earth in place of land.
MULE-le mel; lemool. Other lexicons make a point of giving burdash for mule, although this technically means only a gelding.
MULISH-kahkwa lemool. (like a mule)
MUM-halo wawa. Shaw here of course means silent, rather than the British meaning of mother.
MURDER-mamook memoloose. (to make dead)
MURMUR-(n.) tenas pight wawa. (little fight words) Shaw's meaning here is in a negative context, as in hostile rumours or trouble-making talk. The modern meaning of a quitely mumbled comment is not evidently intended; I am not sure how such might be conveyed.
MURMUR-(v.) potlatch tenas pight wawa. (to give little fight words) See previous. I can see that mamook tenas pight wawa or mahsh tenas pight wawa would also have been correct for the context of instigating rumours.
MUSE-mamook tumtum. (to make feeling, to do thinking)
MUSIC-sing. This was used as the noun for music in the general context; to make music would be mamook sing. More specific are mamook chantie - to sing - and mamook tuletule - to play an instrument.
MUSICIAN-man yaka kumtux sing. (man he knows music)
MUSICAL INSTRUMENT-tin tin; (Indian pompom). Shaw means that the Indian drum was known as a pompom; all non-native Instruments were tintin, tuttut, or tuletule.
MUST-mamook skookum haul. (to make a big pull, i.e. to exert force to accomplish) I am not sure that this would have been used in the customary auxiliary context of must, although conceivably it would function as such, i.e. I will make a big effort to [do whatever].
MUSTARD-piah tupso. (fire grass, fire flower) There are varieties of wild mustard in the Northwest, as well as domestic mustard that has gone wild. This term could also have been used for the fireweed, or any red or yellow flower, however.
MUTE-halo wawa. (without speech)
MUTTON-sheep yaka meat; lemooto yaka itlwillie. (Sheep, his meat). The translation is Shaw's. As in French, however, the name of the animal can be equivalent to the name for its flesh.
MY, MINE-nika; kopa nika; nikas.
MYSTERY-hyas huloima. (very strange, very odd) Another term might be konaway tillikums wake kumtux kahta - nobody knows why - or something similar. Another word that could be used for mystery might be ipsoot - hidden, concelaed, secret.
NAKED-halo ikta mitlite. (wthout thing there is) This appears to be a misprint; more correct would be halo iktas mitlite - lit. there are no clothes.
NAMELESS-halo nem. (without name)
NAP-tenas sleep; tenas moosum. (little sleep)
NARROW-halo wide. (not wide)
NASTY-wake kloshe; mesachie. (not good; evil, bad)
NATION-tillikums. (people, a people) This refers to a people of shared origin; the term for nation as a country is illahee.
NATIVE-delate yaka illahee. (true his land) i.e. truly of the land. Native in the modern sense of aboriginal person would simply be siwash.
NAVIGATE-klatawa kopa chuck. (to go on the water) The meaning here simply means travel by water, rather than finding one's way on the water.
NEAR-wake siah. (not far)
NEAT-kloshe. (good, proper) Shaw means being tidy as a good thing or as the right way for things to be, i.e. to be correct. Delate might also be used in the same context, and would be especially used in the context of liquor being served neat.
NECK-le cou; lecoo.
NEED-hyas ticky. (to want greatly, to desire very much)
NEGATIVE-halo; wake. Shaw here means the negative, in a grammatical sense, rather than an adjectival one, which would be conveyed by cultus or mesachie.
NEGLECT-halo kloshe nanitch. (to not watch well, to not take care of)
NEGRO-klale man; nigga. (black man) Klale siwash - black Indian, black savage - was also commonly used. Nigga would of course be highly politically incorrect in modern usage, even as Chinaman has become (only moreso).
NEIGHBORHOOD-tilikums mitlite wake siah. (people being not far) i.e. there are people nearby. Here Shaw means a community.
NEPHEW-sister or ats or kahpo or ow yaka tenas man. Shaw means that the words sister, ats, and kahpo may be substituted in context where ow is in the phrase given, which means sister her son. Relationships were generally reckoned matrilineally, although of course when necessary the construction may be altered to substitute on of the words for brother where sister is here.
NEVER-wake kunsih. (not when) I can't see why Shaw doesn't give wake kwanesum - not forever, not ever - here.
NEWS-chee wawa. (new words)
NIECE-sister or ats or ow or kahpo yaka tenas klootchman. Shaw means that the words sister, ats, and ow may be substituted in context where kahpo is in the phrase given, which means sister her daughter. Relationships were generally reckoned matrilineally, although of course when necessary the construction may be altered to substitute on of the words for brother where sister is here.
NIGH-wake siah. (not far). The translation is Shaw's.
NINETEEN-tahtelum pe kweest. (ten and nine)
NINETY-kweest tahtlum. (nine tens)
NIP-mamook stop; mamook cut. (to make stop; to make a cut) The first context of is to nip something in the bud; the second is that of a small cut - what we would today maybe call a nick, although I would prefer to see mamook tenas cut for that. A small bite (of food) or a bite out of something must necessarily be tenas muckamuck, or mamook tenas muckamuck; although I wonder about the context to bite something, which might be mamook laboos; a small nip as in of liquor would be tenas lum (whiskey) or muckamuck tenas lum (whiskey).
NO, NOT-halo; wake.
NOBODY-tillikum. This must be a misprint, the necessary negative having been omitted; the correct translation would be halo tillikum or wake tillikum.
NOD-kahkwa sleep; moosum; wake siah sleep; moosum. (like sleep, as if sleeping; not far from sleep) Shaw means that moosum can be used where sleep is in the phrases given.
NOISE-noise; latlah. I am not sure that latlah, from French for the train, can be used by itself for this meaning; more correct would be kahkwa latleh.
NONSENSE-cultus wawa. (meaningless words, worthless words)
NOON-sitkum sun. (half the day, mid-day)
NORTH-kah cole chako. (whence winter comes, where the cold comes from)
NOTHING-halo ikta. (no thing, without things)
NOURISH-potlatch muckamuck; kloshe nanitch. (give food; watch well, i.e. take care of)
NUMB-kahkwa memaloose. (like dead, like a corpse)
NUMBER-klonas kunsih. (maybe how many) Shaw means a vague number, rather than a precise one, i.e. so many without being exact. Number as a concept was kwunnum - a count - or as a verb mamook kwunnum - to make a count.
1. ikt; icht. Another variant was ixt.
2. mokst; moxt.
4. lakit; lokit.
5. kwinnim. The spelling kwinnum was also common.
6. taghum; tughum. Compound numbers were sometimes formed from here, beginning with kwinnum pe ikt for six. The origins of this are in hand-counting, as can be noted in the etymologies of number-systems in other native languages of the region, as in the St'at'imcets klakumpsh - to cross over (to the other hand).
7. sinamokst; sinamoxt.
9. kwaist; kweest.
11. tahtlum pe ikt. (ten and one) Shaw means that the other 'teens proceed similarly.
20. mokt moxt tahtlum. Shaw means either spelling was used, rather than any intending any doubling.
100. ikt takamonuk; icht tukamonuk; tahtlum-tahtlum, - ten tens. The translation is Shaw's.
NURSE-(n.) klootchman; man yaka kloshe nanitch. (man who knows how to watch well, i.e. to take care of)
NURSE-(v.) kloshe nanitch. (to watch well, i.e. to take care of) To nurse as in to breast-feed would simply be potlatch tatoosh - give milk, give breast.
NUTS-tukwilla; toholal; nuts.
OATS-la wen; la ween.
OBEDIENCE, OBEDIENT, OBEY-iskum wawa; mamook kahkwa yaka wawa. (to receive words, to take words; to do like he says)
OBJECT-wawa halo. (say no)
OBLIGE- (a favor)-mamook help. (to do help, to help)
OBSCENE-mesachie. (bad, evil) Mesachie can have the connotation of filthy as well as immoral.
OBSCURE-halo delate kumtux. (not truly understood, not correctly known)
OBSERVE-nanitch. (see, watch)
OBTAIN-nanitch. Shaw's English meaning here is archaic, as in see what obtains, i.e. see what turns up, becomes apparent.
OCEAN-hyas salt chuck. (great salt water)
OCHRE-kawkawak illahee. (yellow earth)
ODD-huloima. (different, strange)
OFFEND-mamook solleks; mamook kahta. (to make angry, to make how) The latter must be meant in combination with a gesture, or else kahta has an ideomatic function that Shaw has not made clear.
OFFER-ticky potlatch. (to want to give)
OFFICER-tyee. Tyee was used for any high-ranking official. The sense here is that of rank, as in the military, rather than the modern sense of police officer, which would simply be law man.
OFTEN-hiyu times. (many times)
OIL-(v.) mamook glease. (to make greased, to make oiled)
OIL CLOTH-snass sail. (rain cloth)
OILY-kahkwa glease. (like grease, like oil)
OINTMENT-lametsin; lametsin kopa skin. (medicine for the skin)
OLD, OLD MAN-oleman. This word is generally meant with the connotation of decrepitude, or worn-out.
OLD WOMAN-lummieh. The prononciation here stresses the last syllable, as in the original French la vieille.
OMIT-mahsh. This is an unusual context for mahsh, which has a multitude of meanings, many of them having to do with discharging, letting go, throwing away, etc. The context here is leaving out.
ONE-ikt. Also ixt and icht.
ONE OR ANOTHER-ikt-ikt. Also means each.
ONION-unjun; ulalach, lesoio. The last would have been pronounced like the original French les oignons, with the accent on the last syllable. There were varieties of wild onion in the Northwest, which was probably what was specifically meant by ulalach. Other native words would have been in use for these wild onions from region to region.
ONION-(wild) kalaka. This would be a regional word, as with ulalach. The place-name Lillooet is also thought by some to derive from the local word for wild onions.
ONLY-(one) kopet ikt. (stop at one, but one) Kopet has a variety of meanings depending on context.
OPERATE-mamook. (work, do, make, activity)
OPINION-tumtum. (thought, idea, feeling)
OPPOSITE-enati. (across, across from)
OR-pe. Pe also means and, but, and then (the last in the conjunctive sense only).
ORATION-wawa. (speech, words, to talk) A fancy or lengthy oration would have been hyas wawa, or perhaps hyas yiem, the latter referring more to telling a tale than to speechifying.
ORATOR-man yaka delate kurntux potlatch wawa. (man he really knows giving speech, man who really knows how to talk)
ORDER-(v.) mahsh wawa; potlatch wawa. (to put out words, to lay out words; to give words) Mahsh was often used to imply command.
ORDER, TO-mahsh tumtum. (to put out thoughts, to express feelings) I do not know what distinction Shaw is making here by giving mahsh tumtum its own entry separate from mahsh wawa and potlatch wawa, which carry much the same meaning. Here the context seems to be one of express intent, rather than what is directly said, or else Shaw means to give order to something, i.e. to make order according to an idea.
ORCHARD-kah hiyu apple stick mitlite. (where many apple trees are)
ORE-chikamin stone. (metal stone)
ORIGINAL-chee; slip; olishinel. (new; first; original) Shaw (or rather Harper's edition of Shaw) gives slip in the second place here; this must be a typographical error, as elip is the obvious word intended and slip occurs nowhere else.
ORPHAN-halo papa halo mama. (without father without mother)
OTHER-huloima. (different, separate, strange)
OTTER (sea)- nawamuks.
OUGHT-delate kloshe. (correct good) That is, it would be correct and good or it would be truly good.
OUR, OURS-nesika; kopa nesika. Some lexicons give the final -s possessive form, i.e. nesikas.
OUT, OUTDOORS, OUTSIDE-klahanie.
OUTLAW-hyas mesachie tillikum. (really bad person)
OVAL-kahkwa egg. (like an egg)
OVEN-wen; kah mamook piah sapolil. (where flour is cooked) Ovens of the day were more used for baking; roasting was done over the open fire.
OVER-(other side) enati.
OVERALLS-klahanie sakolleks. (outside trousers, outer trousers)
OVERCOAT-hyas kapo. (great coat)
OVERBOARD-klahanie kopa boat. (out of the boat)
OVERCOME-tolo. (win, gain, accomplish)
OVERSHOES-klahanie shoes; saghalie shoes. (outer shoes, above shoes)
OVERTHROW-mamook halo; tolo. (to make nothing, i.e. to make undone; to win)
OWL-waugh waugh; kwel kwel.
OX-man moosmoos; moosmoos. (male cattle) Shaw here is translating ox in a somewhat archaic sense for a bull, rather than for oxen as a domestic species. There were draught oxen throughout the Northwest, for which the term moosmoos was probably used, if not simply oxen. Hyas moosmoos may also have been used for these large and powerful beasts.
OYSTER-chetlo; oysters; klogh-klogh.
NAILS-le cloo; nail.
(hard wood) Kahnaway stick - acorn tree - was
(hard wood) Kahnaway stick - acorn tree - was