NB: This page is currently being edited and annotated. Edited sections show the Chinook Jargon words in italics, with direct translations, comments and annotations in purple. Purple items in italics within parentheses are direct translations of Chinook words or compounds where such translations are necessary. Where the words are shown by Shaw with their direct translated meaning, and/or are native or English loan-words that require no further comment, they are omitted from the parentheses. In other words, if there are several items in Shaw's Chinook translation, only one or two may be translated by way of explanation within the parentheses following. There are numerous OCR mistakes in unedited sections, and I have left intact idiosyncracies in Shaw's text (or Harper's transcription of it) - double entries, odd capitalizations, the occasional misspelling, etc. Comments and corrections are welcome.
Shaw's usages here must be understood to reflect the state of English meanings in 1908 (Harper Thomas made no changes in his 1934 reprinting of this reference), as well as the state of the Jargon and Shaw's own context within the frame of reference of the United States and the Jargon as it was spoken there, as well as English ideom of the period. Shaw's own cultural biases are also often evident, and many of the concepts represented seem to be English-oriented ones that he felt a need to find translations of, rather than actual Jargon usages per se. I have therefore added comments and annotations to some of the items below, including literal renderings of some of the Chinook phrases provided in translation of English concepts; my additions are given in purple, Shaw's definitions in the regular black. In time, I will augment this abecediary to the point where it will no longer be a simple reproduction and annotation from Shaw.
Interjections and Exclamations for context-specific
GAD-moosmoos stick; gad. (cattle stick) Shaw of course means a cattle prod.
GAIN-tolo. Also means to win and to earn.
GALLOP, TO-kwalalkwalal; hyak klatawa. (to go quickly)
GAMBLE-gamble; mamook gamble; mamook itlokum; heehee lemah (with disks) chis chis; itlokum.
GAME-heehee. (fun, laughter)
GAS-(n.) kahkwa wind. (like wind, like breath)
GASH-(v.) mamook cut; mamook kokshut. (to make a cut, to make a wound/break)
GASP-hyas kull spose yaka iskum yaka wind; wake siah lost yaka wind. (really hard if he takes his breath; not far from losing/lost wind)
GAY-kloshe; heehee. (good; happy/fun) The modern sense of the word gay is of course not intended.
GAZE-skookum nanitch. (big look, strong look) The archaic sense of gaze is more intent, as in stare as opposed to idle or passive looking.
GENDER-is distinguished by prefixing the word man for male, and klootchman for female. This comment is Shaw's.
GENERAL-hyas tyee. (great chief, mighty chief) The sense here is only military; the adjectival meaning of general would have to be derived from words such as konaway, cultus, etc. depending on context.
GENEROUS-kloshe kopa cultus potlatch. (good with gifts)
GENTLE-halo wind; kwan. The first reference here means without wind, but can also mean without breath, i.e. dead; Shaw is intending it here in reference to the elements.
GENUINE-delate. (real, true, correct)
GET OUT-klatawa; mahsh.
GET UP-mamook getup; getup.
GHOST-tahmahnawis; skookum. (spirit, big) Shaw's use of skookum here refers to legends of a giant demon among Interior peoples; it is more commonly a neutral word without supernatural meaning, unlike tamahnawis, which always carries supernatural overtones.
GIANT-delate hyas man. (really large man) Delate skookum man would also be appropriate.
GIFT-cultus potlatch. (meaningless gift, useless gift) The sense here is of humility in the receiver, the giver, and/or the gift itself. It appears that potlatch by itself carried a meaning of counter-obligation that the word cultus obviates by removing the sense of worth from the gift, or the giver.
GIGGLE-heehee. (laughter) While tenas heehee may provide the diminutive sense implied by the English giggle, native laughter of the period was probably more like giggling than it was like the uproarious laughter of Americans and Brits.
GILT-kahkwa pil chikamin. (like gold) Context here might also lead to mean copper-plated or copperish.
GIPSY-huloima tillikum. (strange person, stranger, i.e. a wanderer) I do not think Shaw was meaning Gipsy in the ethnic sense; had they been in the frontier-era Northwest they could well have been Romany man or Romany tillikums. or perhaps tinker man, tinker tillikums. Like other ethnic Europeans, had there been any in the region as individuals they would have been included in the catch-all designation dutchman.
GIRL-tenas klootchman. (little woman)
GIRLISH-kahkwa tenas klootchman. (like a little woman)
GLAD-kwann, youtl tumtum; kwatl.
GLARE-skookum light. (big light, strong light) Shaw here is meaning an effect of the light. To glare would be skookum nanitch or hyas nanitch.
GLEAM- tenas light. (little light) Towagh, tenas towagh, or kahkwa towagh - shining, little shining, like shining - might also be suitable depending on context; Shaw seems to be referring to dawn or evening twilight.
GLEE-heehee. (Laugher, fun) Klee was also used.
GLOOM-polaklie. Also means night, evening, and darkness.
GLOOMY-kahkwa polaklie (like night.) The translation is Shaw's.
GLORIOUS-hyas kloshe. (greatly good)
GLORY-hyas kloshe nem. (greatly good name)
GNAW-muckamuck; muckamuck kahwaeena. (to eat like a beaver)
GOBLIN-tahmahnawis; tsiatko. (spirit, demon)
GOD-Saghalie Tyee. (Above Chief, the Chief Above)
GODLESS-halo ticky Saghalie Tyee. (without desire for God, does not want God)
GODLIKE, GODLY-Kahwka Saghalie Tyee. (like God)
GOLD-pil chikamin. (red metal) This term was also used for copper.
GOLDEN-kahkwa pil chikamin. (like gold, like copper, like red metal)
GOOD SPIRIT-kloshe tahmahnawis.
GOODS-iktahs. (things, stuff, belongings)
GOOSE-kalakala; whuywhuy; kalakalahma. The first is birds in general.
GORE-(n.) pilpil; (v.) mamook kokshut pe pilpil yaka chako. (blood;, to make broken/wounded and blood it comes)
GOSPEL-Saghalie Tyee yaka wawa. (God, His word.) This is Shaw's translation, and is exact.
GOVERN-mamook tyee. (to act as a chief/lord)
GOVERNOR-tyee. (chief, lord)
GRACEFUL-kloshe. (good, nice)
GRADUATE-(v.) kopet kopa school. (to finish at school) This could conceivably also mean to quit school, although that might better be klatawa kopa school, while to be expelled would have been mahsh kopa school, although both these terms could simply have meant to go to school or to be sent to school.
GRAIN-sapolil. (flour) When speaking of grain as opposed to flour, this was usually used specifically to mean wheat rather than other grains - oats, for example, would have been specifically referred to as lawhen.
GRAND-hyas kloshe. (very good, greatly good, mighty nice)
GRAND CHILD-tenas yaka tenas; koim. (child his/her child)
GRANDDAUGHTER-tenas yaka tenas klootchman. (child his/her child woman)
GRANDFATHER-papa yaka papa; chope. (Papa of his papa.) (father his father)
GRANDMOTHER-mama yaka mama; ohitish; nitz. (mother her mother)
GRANDSON-tenas yaka tenas man (Son of his son) (child his child man)
GRASS-tupso; tupso kopa illahee. (grass in the field)
GRATEFUL-(adj.) mahsie tumtum. (to feel thanks)
GRATEFUL-(v.) wawa mahsie. (to say thanks)
GRAVE-memaloose illahee. (death land, dead earth)
GRAVESTONE-stone kopa memaloose illahee. (stone in the dead ground, stone on the grave)
GRAZE-muckamuck tupso. (to eat grass)
GREASY-kahkwa glease. (like grease)
GREEDY-ticky konaway; hyas ticky. (wants everything, wants greatly)
GREEN-pechugh; (pale green) kawkawak.
GREET-wawa. The syntax here would be something like naika mamook wawa kopa yaka - I made words to him. Mamook klahowya - make greeting, beg alms - is also suitable.
GRAY-(a gray horse) legley.
GRIND-(as flour) mamook sapolil; mamook klimmin-klimmin; (as ax) mamook sharp; mamook klosh. (make flour; make very fine; make sharp, make good) Grinding a knife or axe might preferably be tshish-tshish or mamook tshish-tshish.
GRIT-tenas stone; kahkwa stone. (little stones, like stone) Stone polallie - stone powder - might also have been used. Stone kahkwa lepwah or stone lepwah - stone like peas or stone peas - or stone olallie or stone kopa olallie - stone berries or stone like berries - also seem possible depending on the grade of grit referred to.
GRIZZLY-bear; siam. Hyas itswoot - chief of bears, great bear - was also widely used.
GROUSE-glouse; siwash chicken; siwash lapool. (Indian chicken, Indian fowl)
GROW-chako hyas. (to become large, to become great) Chako skookum might also be appropriate, especially of male children. The grass grows would simply be chako tupso or tupso chako.
GROWL, GRUMBLE-solleks wawa. (angry words) Kamooks yaka wawa - dog his speech - hyas puss-puss yaka wawa - cougar his speech - or itswoot/siam yaka wawa - bear his speech - would be correct in the given circumstances.
GUARD-kloshe nanitch. (watch well) This is a verb; the noun would be man yaka kloshe nanitch or man yaka nanitch.
GUARDIAN-man yaka kloshe nanitch tenas. (man who watches well child/ren) This is a non-native context; women in native societies were equally regarded as suitable guardians, if not the preferred ones.
GUARD HOUSE-skookum house. (strong house, big house) This term was also used for jail or prison.
GUESS-mika tumtum; guess. (you feel/think)
GUILT-mesachie (bad, evil) More specific would be something like naika tumtum mesachie - I think bad, I meant evil.
GUM-la gome. This was in reference to pitch; I do not know if it was used for chicle, i.e. chewing gum.
GUNPOWDER-polallie. (powder) Commonly used by itself, but more specific would be polallie kopa musket - powder for guns - or piah polallie - fire powder.
HAIL-cole snass. (cold rain) Kull snass - hard rain - might also be appropriate.
HAIR-tupso; tupso kopa latet; yakso. (grass on the head)
HAIR BRUSH-tupso bloom. (hair broom)
HALF-BREED-sitkum siwash; sitkum Boston. (half Indian; half American) This could just as easily be sitkum dutchman, sitkum scotchman, sitkum kingchauch, sitkum kanaka, etc.
HALLOO-nah. Shaw here uses a frontier-era hail made from a distance. See Interjections and Exclamations for context-specific exclamations.
HALT-kopet klatawa; kopet cooley. (stop walking/going/moving; stop running)
HAM-cosho; dly cosho. (pork; dried pork)
HAND-(right) kloshe lemah. (the good hand) Rather than the left hand being mesachie lemah, cultus lemah or huloima lemah are more likely. It is interesting that the French term le main droit was not adapted as lemah delate, since both lemah and delate were part of the Jargon.
HANDCUFF-chickamin kopa mamook kow lemah. (metal to make tied hands)
HAND-(game of) itlokum. A game popular amongst natives in the Northwest. I do not know if this was a sleight-of-hand game or something like rock-paper-scissors.
HANDSOME-hyas kloshe. (very good)
HANG-memaloose kopa lope kopa yaka neck. (Died with rope around his neck.) The translation is given in Shaw.
HAPPY-kloshe tumtum; youtl tumtum. (feeling good, feeling proud). Klee tumtum, heehee tumtum and other variants are also possible.
HARD-kull. In both senses - firmness and difficulty.
HARDEN-mamook kull. This is the active; the passive would be chako kull.
HARE-kwitshadie kwetshoddie. A comma appears to be missing in Shaw's edition; these are variant spellings of the same word.
HARK-nah; nanitch. (an exclamation; look, look over there) See Interjections & Exclamations for context-specific exclamations.
HARLOT-mesachie klootchman. (bad woman)
HARM-(n.) mesachie. (bad, evil)
HARM-(v.) mamook mesachie. (to do evil, to make harm)
HARROW, TO-mamook comb illahee. (to comb the earth/land)
HASTEN-hyak. (fast) This is an imperative form only. Verbal compounding would be necessary for other contexts - mamook hyak, klatawa hyak, chako hyak, etc.
HATCH-chicken chako kopa eggs, tenas lapool chee chako. (chicken becomes with eggs; little/baby fowl newly comes)
HATCHET-tenas lahash. (little axe)
HAUL-mamook haul. Haul was also used by itself.
HAUL, WITH WAGON-lolo kopa chikchik. (to carry by wagon)
HAVE-mitlite. Iskum - to hold, receive, or take - was also used to mean to have, depending on context.
HAY-hay; dly tupso. (dry grass)
HAZEL BUSH-toholal stick.
HE, HIS-yaka. See hers.
HEADACHE-sick kopa latet. (sick in the head, hurts in the head)
HEADWIND-cultus wind. (useless wind, bad wind, contrary wind)
HEAL-mamook kloshe. (to make good) Also means to fix, as well as to do good deeds.
HEALED-(passive) chako kloshe. (to become good/well)
HEALTHY-halo sick. (not sick, without sickness)
HEAP-hiyu. (many, lots) This would probably also have been used for a heap, perhaps as hiyu iktas for things in general, or hiyu dly tupso, hiyu stick, etc. depending on what was in the heap.
HEAR-kumtux kopa kwolan. (to understand with the ear, to know by ear)
HEARSAY-cultus kumtux kopa kwolan. (worthless understanding with the ear, worthless knowledge by ear)
HEART-tumtum. Also means mind and to feel and to think.
HEARTACHE-sick tumtum. (to feel sick, sickness in the heart)
HEAVEN-Saghalie Tyee yaka illahee; koosah; saghalie illahee. (God his land; the above land)
HEAVY-till. Also means tired or fatigued.
HEED-(take) kloshe nanitch. (watch well)
HEIRS-yaka tenas pe yaka kloochman. (his children and his woman) This is given in a non-native context; in most native societies in the region, lineage and inheritance was by the female side.
HELL-hyas piah; lejaub yaka illahee; keekwulee illahee. (the great fire; the devil his land; the below land)
HELP, TO-mamook elann; mamook help. (to do aid, to make help)
HEN-kloochman chicken. It is interesting that Shaw does not give klootchman la pool here, or for that matter hen itself, which is used in the construction hen olallie - eggs (chicken berries).
HERS-kopa yaka; yakas; yaka.
HERB-lametsin; tupso. (medicine, grass/plants) A more specific usage would be both words together, i.e. medicine plants.
HERD-hiyu moosmoos. (many cattle, lots of cattle) This refers to cattle only - hiyu cosho, hiyu lemooto, hiyu mowitch, hiyu moolock, etc. would refer to herds of pigs, sheep, deer, and elk.
HERE-yukwa; how nah. How nah seems like an exclamation, as in over here! or it might be used for emphasis.
HERRING-tenas pish; oolchus. (little fish)
HEY-nah. See Interjections & Exclamations for context-specific exclamations.
HID, HIDE TO-(v.) ipsoot. Mamook ipsoot was also commonly used.
HIDE-skin. Lapel was also used, although it would refer more to pelts than to tanned hides.
HIGH-saghalie; long; high.
HILARITY-hiyu heehee. (lots of laughter, lots of fun, many giggles)
HIGHWAY-ooahut. A "highway" in the context of 1908 must be remembered for what it was - the equivalent of a side-lane nowadays, and only barely paved. Modern highways would better be described by klah ooahut, hyas ooahut or skookum ooahut. Alternative spellings/variants of ooahut or wayhut and ooakut.
HILL-tenas saghalie illahee. (slightly above land) Tenas lamonti - little mountain - seems also appropriate.
HINDER-wake siah mamook stop. (not far from making stop)
HIRE-potlatch mamook. (to give something to do, to give a task)
HIRED-(passive) iskum mamook. (to have something to do, to have a task)
HIS-kopa yaka; yakas; yaka.
HIT, TO-mamook kokshut; kwulh.
HIT-(passive) chako kokshut.
HITCH-mamook kow. (to make tied)
HO-nah. Please see Interjections & Exclamations for context-specific exclamations.
HOARSE-cole sick wawa. (cold sickness speaking, i.e. speaking as if with a cold)
HOARY- t'kope. Shaw's meaning here is of hoarfroast, i.e. whitened. The modern meaning of hoary would be expressed, perhaps, by oleman.
HOG-cosho. This is, of course, the animal. To hog something might be muckamuck kahkwa cosho or mamook kahkwa cosho.
HOLD-iskum; halo mahsh. (to hold, to take; to not let go, to not throw away)
HOLD, ON-kloshe mitlite; kloshe wait; hold on. (be good and stay, be good and wait)
HOLIDAY-hyas Sunday; Sunday.
HOLY-kahkwa Saghalie Tyee. (like God)
HOLLOW-halo ikta mitlite. (there are no things; no thing is)
HONEST-wake kapswalla; halo kumtux kapswalla. (not a thief; not know how to steal)
HONEY-honey; kahkwa shuga. (like sugar)
HONOR-kloshe nem. (good name, good reputation)
HOPE-ticky kahkwa. (like wanting)
HOPEFUL-halo kwass. (not afraid)
HORN-stone; bone. The musical instrument would be tuletule, tut-tut, toot-toot, or perhaps tintin.
HORRIBLE, HORRID-hyas mesachie. (very evil, very bad)
HORROR-hyas kwass. (great fear)
HORSE-kuitan. Cayoosh was also widely used, especially in Interior regions.
HORSEBACK-kopa kuitan. (on horse, by horse)
HORSE RACE-cooley kuitan. (run horse, a running of horses)
HORSE SHOES-kuitan shoes; chikamin shoes. (metal shoes)
HOSE-stocken. This was hose in the sense of stockings or socks. I cannot think of a Jargon equivalent for something like a hose, i.e. a pipe of fabric for conveying water or air.
HOSPITABLE-kloshe. (good, nice)
HOSTILE-solleks. (anger, angry) The term lemolo - wild, untamed - was applied to tribes and individual natives who were not yet contacted by civilization, or who had rebelled against it.
HOT-hyas waum. (very warm)
HOUR-tintin; dingding. i.e. the chiming of a clock or bell marking the hour. Taghum tintin - six bells - would thus mean six o'clock, rather than the nautical sense.
HOW ARE YOU-klahowya.
HOWL-kamooks yaka wawa. (dog his speech) Hyas kamooks yaka wawa or kamooks yaka hyas wawa is more expressive of a howl versus, say, a bark or growl.
HOW LARGE-kunsih hyas.
HUCKLEBERRIES-shot olallie. (shot berries, i.e. berries the size of shot-balls) Huckleberries were also known as pil olallie - red berries.
HUMAN-kahkwa man. (like man) Humane might be tumtum kahkwa man - feels/thinks like man.
HUMBLE-halo proud. Shaw perhaps invokes this because halo youtl - not proud - would tend to mean ashamed or lacking in self-esteem.
HUMOROUS-heehee. (laughter, fun)
HUNT-mamook hunt. (to make a hunt, to do a hunt)
HURRY-hyak; howh. These are both imperatives; he is in a hurry would be yaka mamook hyak, yaka klatawa hyak, etc. - alternate and perhaps more authentic syntax would be hyak yaka mamook, hyak yaka klatawa, etc. See Interjections & Exclamations for more on howh.
HURT-(adj.) kokshut. (broken, broken apart, struck/afflicted, wounded) Sick tumtum mitlite would also mean is hurt/hurting.
HURT-(v.) chako kokshut. (to become broken, to be struck/afflicted, to be wounded) Chako sick tumtum would also mean to become hurt. This sense is purely passive; to hurt someone/something would be mamook kokshut.
HURT ONE'S FEELINGS-mamook sick tumtum; mamook kahta. (to make feel sick) I do not know what Shaw means by the second translation - literally to make how.
HUSBAND, (MY)-nika man. (my man) Her husband would be okoke klootchman yaka man - that woman her man.
HUSH-kopet wawa; kopet noise. (stop talking, stop the noise)
Interjections and Exclamations for context-specific