NB: This page is currently being edited and annotated. Edited sections show the Chinook Jargon words in italics, with direct translations, comments and annotations in purple. Purple items in italics within parentheses are direct translations of Chinook words or compounds where such translations are necessary. Where the words are shown by Shaw with their direct translated meaning, and/or are native or English loan-words that require no further comment, they are omitted from the parentheses. In other words, if there are several items in Shaw's Chinook translation, only one or two may be translated by way of explanation within the parentheses following. There are numerous OCR mistakes in unedited sections, and I have left intact idiosyncracies in Shaw's text (or Harper's transcription of it) - double entries, odd capitalizations, the occasional misspelling, etc. Comments and corrections are welcome.
Shaw's usages here must be understood to reflect the state of English meanings in 1908 (Harper Thomas made no changes in his 1934 reprinting of this reference), as well as the state of the Jargon and Shaw's own context within the frame of reference of the United States and the Jargon as it was spoken there, as well as English ideom of the period. Shaw's own cultural biases are also often evident, and many of the concepts represented seem to be English-oriented ones that he felt a need to find translations of, rather than actual Jargon usages per se. I have therefore added comments and annotations to some of the items below, including literal renderings of some of the Chinook phrases provided in translation of English concepts; my additions are given in purple, Shaw's definitions in the regular black. In time, I will augment this abecediary to the point where it will no longer be a simple reproduction and annotation from Shaw.
FABLE-wake delate wawa. (not
straight words) This might be apt only for parables or half-truths.
The magical or legendary sense of fable might be conveyed by tamanass
EARLY-tenas sun. (little day)
EARNEST-skookum tumtum. (feel big, feel strong) I would tend to favour delate for earnest, at least in its context as sincere.
EAST-kah sun yaka chako. (where the sun/day he comes)
EASTER-pak paska. This may be a misprint, with the comma missing; either word is a borrowing from the French pasques.
EASY-halo kull. (not hard) It appears that kull parallels its English equivalent hard in being applicable to physical hardness as well as difficulty. As with much of the Jargon, many concepts are formed through a negative construction using halo or wake.
EAT, TO-muckamuck. Also means to drink.
EATABLE-kloshe kopa muckamuck. (good to eat) Also means good to drink or potable.
EBB TIDE-chuck yaka klatawa. (the water it goes)
EDUCATE-mamook kumtux. (to make known, to make understanding)
EFFEMINITE-kahkwa kloochman. (like a woman) The word burdash - gelding, hermaphrodite - could also be used to indicate a lack of masculinity.
EGG-lesap; lesap; hen olallie. (hen berry)
EIGHT-stotekin; kwinnum pe klone; eight. (five and three)
EIGHTEEN- tahtlum pe stotekin. (ten and eight)
EIGHTY-stotekin tahtlum. (eight tens)
EIGHT HUNDRED-stotekin tukomonuk. (eight hundreds)
EITHER-OR- klonasklonas. Shaw gives this as a joined word, but he must mean it as a separable form like either/or itself - unless prefacing a pair of words by klonasklonas had the same effect.
EJECT-mahsh klahananie. (to put/throw outside)
ELEGANT- hyas kloshe. (very good)
ELEVATE-mamook saghaiie. (to make above)
ELOQUENT- kumtux wawa. (knows how to speak)
ELSE-huloima. (other, different) The use of kopet as a conjunctive version of else seems more appropriate; what Shaw must mean here is in the sense of or else.....in which case the form would be pe huloima - and differently.
ELUDE-ipsoot, klatawa. (hide going) I think the comma must be a misprint here, as the meaning of elude would not be conveyed by either of these words alone.
EMBARK-klatawa kopa canim, boat; ship. (go in the canoe, boat, ship)
EMBLEM-kahkwa picture. (like a picture) it is interesting that there was no Jargon word to express the concept of totemic or heraldic emblems, given the importance of such symbology in Coastal society.
EMBRACE-iskum kopa lemah. (to take in the hand/arms, to hold in the hand/arms) Iskum kopa tatoosh or iskum kopa yakwahtin might convey more intimacy or contact.
EMOTION-cly tumtum; kahkwa cly. (feel like crying, like crying) The older slightly-negative context of emotion here is evident in Shaw's Chinook translation; obviously klee tumtum, hee-hee tumtum, kloshe tumtum, or corresponding variants with kahkwa would be suitable for other emotions.
EMPTY-halo ikta mitlite. (There is nothing there) Halo pahtl or wake pahtl - not full - are given in other lexicons.
ENACT-mamook. (do, make)
ENCIRCLE-ikt yahwa, ikt yahwa, ikt yahwa, pe mamook kow. (one there, one there, one there, then make it tied) Obviously Shaw's context here is tactical, as in placing persons around an objective, as in hunting, war, or capturing a horse. To make a circle might be conveyed by mamook lowullo - to make round, to make a circle; to draw a circle might be mamook tzum lowullo - to make a circular mark.
ENCLOSE-mamook keekwulee. (to make beneath) I do not know why Shaw would not have given mamook ikpooie - make shut - or mahsh ikpooie - put it somewhere hidden/shut.
END-opoots. Other senses of English end might be conveyed by kopet mamook, kopet wayhut, etc.
ENDEAVOR- ticky mamook. (to want to do) The sense here is verbal. An endeavour would simply be mamook - deed, work.
ENDURE-kwonesum mamook; kwonesum mitlite. (always do, forever be)
ENEMY-solleks tillikum; mesachie tillikum. (anger person, bad person)
ENERGY-skookum mamook. (strongly do, powerful deed)
ENGLAND-King George Illahee.
ENGLISH, ENGLISHMAN-King Chautsh; King George tillikum. King George man or kingchautshman were also widely used.
ENGRAVE-mamook tzum. (make a mark) Mamook cut tzum would seem to be more specific, or mamook cut (kahkwa) picture.
ENJOY-mitlite kloshe tumtum. (to be feeling good)
ENLARGE-mamook hyas. (to make big, to make great)
ENOUGH-kopet hiyu; hiyu; kopet.
ENQUIRE-wawa; ask; ticky kumtux. (speak; ask; to want to know)
ENSLAVE-mamook elite. (to make a slave)
ENSLAVED-(pas.) chako elite. (to be a slave, to become enslaved)
ENTER-klatawa keekwulee, klatawa inside. (to go down/below, to go inside) The former would perhaps have been used in reference to ships and Indian houses, which were often pit-dwellings. The latter would refer to a European-style house, the concept of inside being an introduced one like doors and windows.
ENTERTAIN-(as a guest) kloshe nanitch. (to look good, to appear good) This does not seem apt to the task of entertaining guests; perhaps what Shaw meant was the host putting on a good show. Mamook klee, mamook heehee and other terms would refer to making someone happy.
ENTRAP-iskum kopa trap. (to hold in a trap) The passive would be chako kopa trap - to become entrapped - or mitlite kopa trap - to be entrapped.
ENUMERATE-mamook kunsih; mamook tzum. (to make how many, to make marks) Mamook kwunnum also seems appropriate.
EPILEPSY-sick, kahkwa clazy. I think the use of all three words - as in sick, like crazy - here would convey the meaning, rather than either sick or kahkwa clazy by themselves.
EQUAL- kahkwa. (like, as, the same) Delate kahkwa - exactly alike, truly the same - would emphasize the notion of equality, as might konaway kahkwa.
ERECT-mitwit; delate. (standing; upright, straight) Shaw gives these as separate words, but combined the meaning is more specific.
ESCAPE-chako klahanie (for first or second persons); klatawa klahanie (for third person); klatawa. (become outside; go outside) Note th difference in contexts - it seems that the third person version refers to someone getting away from the speaker.
ESCORT-(v.) klatawa kunamokst pe kloshe nanitch. (to go together but to watch well; to both go but to keep a lookout) The meaning here of course relates to travel rather than social escort, except in an ideomatic way.
ESTIMATE-(n.) tumtum. (feeling, thought)
ESTIMATE-(v.) mamook tumtum. (to make a feeling, to make a thought)
EULOGIZE-wawa kloshe wawa. (to speak good words)
EVACUATE-mamook halo; konaway klatawa klahanie. (to make nothing, to make empty; everything go outside)
EVE-tenas polaklie. (little darkness) Chako polaklie - becomes dark - would apply to twilight. In the sense of eve as night before, elip polaklie or polaklie elip might be appropriate.
EVEN-konoway kahkwa; kloshe. (everything same; good)
EVENING-tenas polaklie. (little darkness) Chako polaklie - becomes dark - would apply to twilight.
EVERY-konaway. The concept of each would be better expressed by using kopet, as in kopet ikt.
EVICT-mash klahanie. (to throw outside) Shaw's spelling of mahsh here is probably only a misprint.
EVIL-masachie. This word is usually spelled mesachie; this is probably a misprint.
EXAGGERATE-wake siah kliminawhit. (not far from a lie, not far from lying) The usual use of exaggerate as making something sound more than it was might have to be explained; Shaw's context here is that of a tall tale.
EXALT-mamook saghalie; mamook hyas. (to make high up, to make great) The use of this word was apparently in a religious context only.
EXALTED-(pas.) chako saghalie; klatawa »aghalie; chako hyas. (to become high up, to go high up; to become great)
EXAMINE-delate nanitch. (to see truly, to see straight)
EXCEED-chako elip hiyu. (to become more than many, more than enough)
EXCEL-elip kloshe. (more than good)
EXCELLENT-hyas kloshe. (greatly good)
EXCEPT-(prep.) kopet. (but for, only) Pe would also have been used in some cases.
EXCESS-elip hiyu. (more than many, more than enough)
EXCITE-mamook hyas yaka tumtum. (to make someone feel very much)
EXCLAIM, EXCLAMATION-skookum wawa; wawa. (big words, words). See Interjections & Exclamations for context-specific exclamations.
EXCLUDE, EXCOMMUNICATE-mahsh klahanie. (to throw outside, to put outside)
EXCUSE-mamook klahowya. (to make mercy)
EXECUTE-mamook memaloose. (to make dead)
EXERCISE, EXERT-mamook. (to make, to do)
EXHALE-mahsh wind. (to expel breath)
EXHAUST-mamook till. (to make tired) NB this is not in the context of to use up, which would be mamook wagh or mamook wake/halo or something similar.
EXHAUSTED-(pas.) chako delate till; wake siah memaloose kopa till. (to become really tired, not far from dead from being tired)
EXHORT-skookum wawa; wawa skookum. (big words, speak strongly)
EXILE-(v.) or EXPATRIATE-mahsh klahanie kopa yaka illahee. (to throw out from one's country)
EXPEDITE-mamook hyak. (to do quickly)
EXPEND-pay; potlatch. (to pay, to give)
EXPERT-delate yaka kumtux. (one who really knows; he really knows/understands)
EXPIRE-memaloose; mahsh konaway yaka wind. (to die; to expel all his breath)
EXPLAIN-mamook kumtux. (to make understood)
EXPLORE-klatawa pe nanitch. (to go and to look)
EXPRESS-(v.) wawa. (to speak, to say) Express as an adjective would be delate.; as a noun it would be hyak tlen, hyak latleh - fast train - hyak chikchik - fast wagon/stage.
EXQUISITE-delate kloshe. (truly good)
EXTEND-mamook hyas. (to make larger/longer)
EXTENDED-(pas.) chako hyas. (to become larger/longer)
EXTENSIVE-hyas. (large, long)
EXTERMINATE, EXTINGUISH-mamook halo; mahsh. (to make nothing; to put out)
EXTRAORDINARY-hyas huloima. (very different, very strange)
EXTRAVAGANT-cultus mahkook iktas. (unnecessarily bought things)
EYE, EYEBALL-seeowist. This term did not distinguish between the eyes and the face.
EYELASH-skin kopa seeowist. (skin over the eyes)
EYEWATER- lametsin kona seeowist. (medicine for the eyes)
EYEWITNESS-man yaka delate nanitch. (man who truly saw, man who saw straight)
FABRIC-iktas. (stuff) Paseese was more commonly used to mean cloth.
FACE-seeowist. This term did not distinguish between the eyes and the face.
FACILITY-halo kull. (not hard, not difficult)
FACT-delate wawa. (straight words, true words)
FADE-chako spooh. (to become faded)
FADED- spooh. (faded, any light colour)
FAGGED-chako till. (to become tired)
FALL-fall down; mamook whim. Shaw here means to clarify fall as in to fall down, as opposed to fall as in autumn, i.e. fall down is not meant to be read as a Chinook term.
FALSE, FALSEHOOD-kliminawhit; tseepie. The former is explicitly to lie; the latter has the sense of a mistake or error.
FAME-hyas nem. (great name, mighty reputation)
FAMILY tillikums. In this sense a qualifying preposition would have been used - e.g. yaka tillikums (his/her people) or naika tillikums (my people). In the tribal sense, someone's people was their family.
FAMISH-wake siah memoloose kopa olo. (not far from dead from hunger)
FARM-illahee. That is to say, someone's land, yaka illahee, maika illahee, etc.; farmland as a quality of terrain was specified by kloshe illahee.
FARTHER-elip siah. (more far)
FARTHEST-elip siah kopa konaway. (more far from everything)
FAST-(tight) kwult; hyas kull. (pushed, squeezed; very hard)
FASTEN-mamook kow. (to make tied)
FATTEN-mamook glease. Shaw must mean to put fat on something; to make an animal grow fatter would more appropriately be mamook skookum kopa hiyu muckamuck - to make larger by lots of feeding.
FAULT-wake delate mamook. (not correctly done) The sense of blame or guilt does not seem to be Shaw's intent.
FAVOR-kloshe tumtum. (to intend good, to mean well) To do a favour would be mamook kloshe.
FAWN-tenas mowitch; mowitch yaka tenas. (a small deer; a deer her young)
FEARLESS-halo kwass. (no fear)
FEAST-muckamuck; hiyu muckamuck. (dinner, food; many people at dinner, lots of food) The ceremonial-social native feast was the potlatch, or hyas potlatch.
FEATHER-kalakala yaka tupso. (bird its hair)
FEEBLE-wake skookum; halo skookum. (not strong, without strength)
FEED-potlatch muckamuck. (to give food)
FEEL-(with hand) kumtux kopa lemah. (to know by the hand)
FEEL-(with heart) sick tumtum. (to feel sick) Again, as with his translation of emotion, the negative connotation of having feelings is evident in Shaw's rendering; tumtum by itself meant to feel in an absolute sense, without any specific emotion implied.
FEET-lapea. An alternate spelling, lepee, does not capture the prononciation of the original French le pied quite so well.
FELL, TO-(as a tree) mamook whim. (to make fall)
FELLOW-tillikum. Shaw means a person generically, as in somebody. The period phrase hail, fellow! would have used sikhs instead of tillikum, which some whites misconstrued to mean friend.
FERMENT-kahkwa liplip; chako waum. (to make boil/bubble; to become warm) The process of distilling bootleg booze seems to be referred to here.
FENCE-kullagh; kullahan; pence.
FEROCIOUS-hyas ticky pight; delate kumtux pight. (really wants/likes to fight; truly knows how to fight)
FERVENT, FERVOR-waum tumtum.
FESTER-chako sick pe chako hyas. (to become sick and to become large) Chako mesachie pe chako hyas might also be appropriate, especially for serious wounds.
FESTIVAL-hyas kloshe time; hiyu muckamuck. (very good time; lots of food, big feast) The terms Sunday and hyas Sunday were also used to refer to holidays in general, with the latter especially for major holidays such as Christmas and Easter and "the July".
FETCH-lolo; mamook chako. (to carry; to make brought)
FEVER-waum sick. (warm sickness) Although this referred to fevers in general, malaria was very common in the frontier-era Northwest.
FEVER AND AGUE-cole sick; waum sick. (cold sickness; warm sickness)
FEW-wake hiyu; tenas. (not many; a small number)
FICTION-wake delate wawa. (not straight words)
FIEND-mesachie tahmahnawis. (evil spirit)
FIERCE-hyas ticky pight. (really wants to fight)
FIFTEEN-taktlum pe kwinnum. (ten and five)
FIFTY-kwinnum tahtlum. (five tens)
FIGHT, TO-mamook solleks; pight; mamook pukpuk. (to make anger; to fight; to make a fist-fight)
FIGHT-(with fists) mamook pukpuk.
FIGURED-(as calico) tzum. (marked, marks)
FILL, TO-mamook pahtl. (to make full)
FILTHY-mesachie; humm; cultus.
FIN-pish yaka lemah. (fish his hand/arm)
FINE-(v.) mamook fine. I am not sure if Shaw means here to fine someone, as in law, or to make a knife-edge fine.
FINGERS-le doo; lemah.
FINISH-mamook kopet. (to make end) This is a verbal sense; the finish of something would be simply kopet.
FIR-moola stick. (mill wood, mill tree) Fir was the most highly prized wood for the lumber industry, and still is.
FIREPLACE-kah piah mitlite. (where fire is, where fire lives)
FIRM-skookum. Firm in the sense of texture would have been kull or kahkwa stone.
FIRST BORN-elip tenas. (first child)
FISHERY-kah pish mitlite; kah iskum pish. (where fish live, where fish are held) Shaw here means a fish hatchery or a good place to fish. The modern sense of fishery as an institution was unknown.
FISHLINE-pish lope. (fish rope)
FISHROD-pish stick. (fish stick)
FISHY-kahkwa pish. (like a fish)
FISTS-lemah kahkwa (hands the same as)
FIT-kahkwa clazy. (as though crazy, like crazy)
FIVE HUNDRED-kwinnum tukamonuk. (five hundreds)
FIX-mamook kloshe. (to make good)
FLAG-sail; flag; hyas Sunday sail.
FLEA-sopen inapoo; chotub.
FLIES-tenas kalakala; lemosh. (little bird, little flying thing) I have not seen lemosh anywhere else; it appears to be a French/Michif loan-word.
FLIMSY-wake skookum. (not strong)
FLING-mahsh. (to throw) The festive sense of fling is not intended here.
FLOAT-mitlite saghalie kopa chuck. (to be on top of the water, to be above the water)
FLOCK-hiyu sheep; kalakala. (many sheep; many birds) Kalakala may have been able to be used in the plural sense here, without need of hiyu.
FLOOD-hiyu chuck. (much water)
FLOUR-sapolil; klimmin sapolil. Klimmin sapolil would have been finely-ground.
FLOW- klatawa. (to go, to move)
FLOWERS-kloshe tupso. (good grass)
FLUID-kahkwa chuck. (like water, same as water)
FLY-(v.) mamook fly; kawak.
FOAL-(n.) tenas kuitan. (little horse, young horse) Tenas cayoosh would have been used in some areas.
FOAL-(to be with) (v.) klootchman kuitan yaka mitlite tenas. (female horse she is with young) To foal, i.e. in the sense of giving birth, would be klootchman kuitan yaka mahsh tenas.
FOG-smoke; cultus smoke. (harmless smoke, ordinary smoke)
FOLLOW-klatawa kimtah. (to go behind, to go after)
FOLLY-kahkwa pelton. (like crazy, as a fool)
FOOLISH, FOOLHARDY-kahkwa pelton. (like crazy, as a fool)
FOOT-lepee. It is interesting that Shaw gives lapea for the plural; there is no difference in French prononciation between le pied and les peids.
FOOTSTEPS, FOOTPRINT-kah leepee mitlite (showing how teawhit.) (where the foot was) I do not understand the distinction Shaw is trying to explain here; teawhit referred to the leg as well as the foot. I cannot see why the use of one over the other would refer to showing how over the artifact.
FORBEAR-kopet. (stop, wait)
FORBID-wawa kloshe kopet. (to say stop)
FORD-kah kloshe nesika klatawa enati kopa chuck. (where good we go across the water)
FOREFATHER- ahnkuttie papa. (father of ancient times)
FOREIGN-huloima. (strange, different, other)
FORENOON-elip sitkum sun. (almost mid-day)
FOREST-kah hiyu stick mitlite. (where there are many trees)
FORETELL-wawa elip. (to speak before)
FORGET, TO-mahlie; mahsh tumtum; kopet kumtux. (to throw away thoughts/feelings; to stop thinking/thoughts)
FORGIVE-mamook klawhowya. (to make mercy, to do kindness)
FORTNIGHT-mokst Sunday. (two Sundays) I do not know why Shaw would not also have given mokst week, as week was also a Chinook term.
FORTY-lakit tahtlum. (four tens)
FOR WHAT-pe kahta. SIZE=-2>(but why)
FOURTEEN-tahtlum pe lakit. (ten and four)
FOUR HUNDRED-lakit tukamonuk. (four hundreds)
FOX-talapus, hyas opoots talapus. (big tailed coyote) Tenas talapus - small coyote - was occasionally used, although this would tend to mean a coyote kit.
FRANCE-Pasiooks illahee. (cloth people land) Historically, this is a bit ironic, as the original Pasiooks were the Metis voyageurs, whose connection with France was very remote.
FRATERNAL-kahkwa ow. (like brothers)
FREE-halo elite. (not a slave, not enslaved)
FREEZE-hyas cole. (great cold, very cold) I think Shaw here must mean a freeze, as in a cold snap, as opposed to to freeze, which would have been mamook hyas cole or chako hyas cole, depending on whether the active or passive sense of the verb was meant; mitlite hyas cole would mean to be frozen in the sense of something that already was.
FRENCH, FRENCHMAN-Pasiooks. Again, this term was derived from the legacy of the fur company voyageurs, but became applied to all French-speakers.
FREQUENTLY-hiyu times. (Many times)
FRESH-chee. (new) In the sense of vegetables, meat, or fruit, this might also have simply been kloshe - good.
FRET-tenas solleks. (small anger)
FRIDAY-kwinnum sun. (fifth day) The days of the week in Jargon were referred to by number, with Monday being ikt sun.
FRIEND-sikhs tillikum. (friend person)
FRIENDLY-kloshe tumtum; kahkwa tillikum. (feels good; like a person) The latter ideom may be partly the origin of the mistranslation of tillikum as friend.
FRIENDLESS-halo tillikum. (without people, without kin) This also may be partly the origin of the mistranslation of tillikum as friend.
FRIGHTEN-mamook knass. (to make afraid) This must be a misprint, with kwass meant instead of knass.
FRIGHTENED-(pos.) chako knass. (to become afraid) This must be a misprint, with kwass meant instead of knass.
FROLIC-heehee. (fun, laughter)
FROLICSOME-pahtl kopa heehee. (full of fun, full of laughter)
FROWN-kahkwa solleks. (as if angry, like anger) This would best be expressed by the inclusion of seeohwist - face - or lapush - mouth. A frown in sadness or sorrow would use kahkwa sick tumtum.
FRY, TO-mamook piah; mamook cook; mam-ook la'po-el. (to make fired; to make cooked; to make fried) La'po-el resembles lapellah. but refers to frying rather than roasting.
FRYING PAN-la po-el.
FUEL-piah stick. (fire wood) Coal was relatively unknown as a fuel, despite its abundance in some areas of the Northwest; it may have been klale stone or piah stone or something similar.
FUND-chikamin; dolla. To fund would have been potlatch chikamin or potlatch dolla.
FUNERAL-lolo; mahsh memoloose tillikum kopa memoloose illahee. (to carry; to put the dead person in the land of death/graveyard) Shaw here appears to mean that lolo might be used in place of mahsh - to carry the dead to the graveyard.
FUR-eena tupso. (beaver hair) Shaw here appears to mean only beaver pelts, which were the most valuable after that of the nawamuks, the sea otter.
FURNITURE-iktas. (stuff, belongings) The all-purpose nature of this word - literally things - embraces household furnishings as well as clothing.
FURTHERMOST, FURTHEREST-elip siah kopa konaway. (more far from everything)
FUTILE-cultus. (useless, wasted) Another usage might well be mamook kopa wake/halo - done for nothing; the equivalent with cultus would be cultus mamook - useless deed. Other words than mamook might be used depending on context - wawa, klatawa, etc.
FUTURE-alki; by-by; winapie. The immediate future was expressed by laly alki; by-by shared this meaning of soon.
FABLE-wake delate wawa. (not
straight words) This might be apt only for parables or half-truths.
The magical or legendary sense of fable might be conveyed by tamanass