NB: This page is currently being edited and annotated. Edited sections show the Chinook Jargon words in italics, with direct translations, comments and annotations in purple. Purple items in italics within parentheses are direct translations of Chinook words or compounds where such translations are necessary. Where the words are shown by Shaw with their direct translated meaning, and/or are native or English loan-words that require no further comment, they are omitted from the parentheses. In other words, if there are several items in Shaw's Chinook translation, only one or two may be translated by way of explanation within the parentheses following. There are numerous OCR mistakes in unedited sections, and I have left intact idiosyncracies in Shaw's text (or Harper's transcription of it) - double entries, odd capitalizations, the occasional misspelling, etc. Comments and corrections are welcome.
Shaw's usages here must be understood to reflect the state of English meanings in 1908 (Harper Thomas made no changes in his 1934 reprinting of this reference), as well as the state of the Jargon and Shaw's own context within the frame of reference of the United States and the Jargon as it was spoken there, as well as English ideom of the period. Shaw's own cultural biases are also often evident, and many of the concepts represented seem to be English-oriented ones that he felt a need to find translations of, rather than actual Jargon usages per se. I have therefore added comments and annotations to some of the items below, including literal renderings of some of the Chinook phrases provided in translation of English concepts; my additions are given in purple, Shaw's definitions in the regular black. In time, I will augment this abecediary to the point where it will no longer be a simple reproduction and annotation from Shaw.
TACKS-tenas nails; tenas lecloo. (little nails)
TAIL-opoots. (rear end, back end) To tail as in to follow something would be klatawa kimtah. perhaps with kapswalla - stealthily - or ipsoot - hidden - as auxiliaries.
TAKE, TO-iskum. Also means to have, to hold, to receive.
TAKE CARE-kloshs nanitch. (to watch well) Kloshs is a misprint; kloshe was intended. Kloshe nanitch can variously mean to guard, to protect, to watch out for, etc.
TAKE OFF, OR TAKE OUT-mamook haul; mamook klah; mamook klak; mahsh. (to make lift or to make pull, i.e. to lift from, to pull from; to make wide; to make open; to eject, to put out)
TALK-wawa. Also means to say, to speak, words, language, etc.
TALKATIVE-hiku wawa. (lots of talk, talks a lot) Hiku is a misprint; hiyu was intended.
TALE, OR STORY-wawa; yiem, ehkahnam.
TALL-hyas tall. There may be a comma or semicolon missing here; hyas could mean tall all by itself, as obviously could also tall, which is not normally listed as a Jargon word.
TALLOW-moosmoos glease. (cattle fat) Presumably lemoto or cosho might be substituted for moosmoos depending on the animal that was the source of the tallow.
TAMBOURINE OR INDIAN DRUM-pompom.
TAME-(adj.) halo wind; halo lemolo; kwann. (without wind; not wild, not savage; calm) I am unsure of the use of halo wind in this context, unless solely in regard to weather.
TAME-(v.) mamook kwann. (to make calm)
TAME-kwass. (The latter is the most used word, and kwann is the least). This comment is Shaw's. The context here of kwass is that of timid.
TAP-tenas kokshut. (little hit, little strike)
TART-tenas sour; tenas kwates. (little sour) Kwates may be a misprint; kwatas is the more conventional spelling.
TASK-mamook. (deed, act, work, also to do, to make, to use, to act)
TASTE-tenas muckamuck. (little eat, little drink)
TATTLE-cultus wawa; yiem. (worthless talk, worthless tale) Shaw's intent here may be that yiem might be substituted for wawa in combination with cultus. Yiem by itself ordinarily means to relate a tale.
TAVERN-muckamuck house. (food house, drinking house)
TEA-tea. Latay was also used.
TEACH, TO-mamook kumtux; mamook teach. (to make undestand, to make knowledge)
TEAR-(n.) chuck kopa seeowist. (water in the eye, water on the face)
TEAT-tatoosh. (breast, milk)
TEDIOUS-till; long. Till means heavy and/or tiresome, as in boring. Long would more refer to a context of time.
TELL, TO-wawa; yiem. (to speak, to say; to relate a tale)
TEMPLE-hyas church house. (big church house, important church house) The context here could be either Mormon or Jewish; there were no Buddhist temples in the frontier-era Northwest, so far as I know. I do not think Shaw here was meaning a cathedral.
TEMPT-haul kopa mesachie. (haul towards evil, pull towards evil)
TEND-kloshe nanitch. (watch well) Kloshe nanitch can variously mean to guard, to protect, to watch out for, etc.
TENDER-wake kull; waka skookum. (not hard, not strong) Waka is a misprint; wake was intended.
TENT-sail house. (cloth house) Tents in the frontier era were often comparable in size to cabins and small houses. The usual modern sense of pup-tent would simply by tenas sail house.
TERM (OF SCHOOL)-kwahta. (quarter) The sense is equivalent to the common modern academic one.
TERRIBLE, TERROR-delate hyas mesachie. (really greatly bad, truly greatly evil)
TERRITORY-hyas illahee. (large land) That is, an expanse of landscape.
TESTIMONY-wawa kopa court. (to speak before the court) Shaw's context here is purely legal.
TESTIFY-wava kopa court; delate yiem. (to speak before the court; straight story, tell straightly) Wava is a misprint; wawa was intended. Shaw's context in the first example here is purely legal. The second may have a more general usage.
THAN-kopa. Kahkwa may be more appropriate in some contexts, or kahkwa kopa.
THAT-okoke. Also means this. Not used for the English conjucntion that, which would more likely be pe or kahkwa or kehwa.
THAW-(water) chako chuck; (land) chako klimmin. (to become water; to become soft)
THE-sometimes okoke is used, a very definite the almost equal to that. Usually no articles were used at all, and certainly were not necessary. Shaw means here that okoke would be used where the would be designatory or specifically indicative of a particular object. In Shaw's comment, that should have been italicized.
THEIR, THEIRS-klaska; kopa klaska. Klaskas could also be correct.
THEREABOUT-wake siah yahwa. (not far from there)
THICK-(as molasses) pitilh; pitlih.
THIEF-kapswalla man, tillikum, yaka kumtux kapswalla. (stealing man, person; he knows stealing) Shaw means that tillikum could be substituted for man in the first example.
THIGH-lapee yahwa (pointing to it). Lajam or lajam yahwa would also be correct.
THINE-mika. Mikas or kopa mika could also be correct. The spelling maika/maikas conveys the intended prononciation better.
THINGS-iktas. Came to mean clothing, belongings, household goods, etc.
THINK-tumtum; mamook tumtum. Tumtum also means to feel as well as the heart and the mind.
THIRSTY-olo kopa chuck. (hungry for water) Just as common, if not moreso, was olo chuck.
THIRTEEN-tahtlum pe klone. (ten and three)
THIRTY-klone tahtlum. (three tens)
THIRTY-ONE-klone tahtlum pe ikt. (three tens and one)
THIS-okoke. Also means that.
THITHER-yahwa. (there, yonder, over there)
THORN-needle kopa stick. Tupshin kopa stick or stick tupshin also seem appropriate.
THOROUGH-delate. (truly, really, all the way, straight)
THOSE-okoke. Also mean this and that. Okoke klaksta - those whomever - might be appropriate when referring to people.
THOU, THY, THINE-mika. The spelling maika conveys the correct prononciation better.
THOUGHT-tumtum. Tumtum also means feeling as well as idea, to think, and to feel.
THOUGHTLESS-halo tumtum. (without thought) See previous.
THOUSAND-thousand; tahtlum tukanionuk; hoh. Tukanionuk is a misprint; tukamonuk was intended.
THRASH-mamook pat. I have not seen pat in any other Jargon lexicons; the meaning here is unclear and must be ideomatic.
THREAD-klapite; hwilom. Tenas lope or tenas tenas lope might also be appropriate.
THREAT-mamook kwass. (to make afraid)
THRONG-hiyu tillikums. (many people)
THROW, THRUST, THROW AWAY-mahsh. This is one of the most direct means of mahsh, which has a wide range of ideomatic uses, most of which have a context of to discharge.
THUMB-lemah (pointing to it). Ledoo or ledwah - finger - or hyas ledoo or hyas ledwah - big finger - might also be appropriate.
THUNDER-skookum noise kopa saghalie. (big noise in the sky, strong noise from above) Mamook latleh kopa saghalie might also be appropriate.
THURSDAY-lakit sun. (fourth day)
THUS-kahkwa. Kahkwa also means like, as, similar to, because, etc.
THYSELF-mika self. The spelling maika self better conveys the correct prononciation.
TIDE-chuck chako pe klatawa. (water comes and goes) Elsewhere Shaw explains that ebb tide is chuck killapie or killapie chuck - the water turns back.
TIE-(v.) mamook kow. (to make tied, to make a knot) A neck-tie would simply be sail kopa neck or sail kopa shut.
TIGER-hyas pishpish. (big cat, great cat) Pishpish is the Puget Sound variant of the more widespread pusspuss. This more commonly meant cougar or mountain lion; perhaps tigers were brought to the region with circuses of the day.
TIMBER-stick. (wood, trees)
TIN, TINWARE-malah; tin, matah. Matah may be an adpation of the English metal.
TINT-tzum. (marking, colouring)
TIP, TO-lagh. Shaw of course means to tip over or to tip on one side, as in to tilt, rather than to tip a waitress.
TIRE-(n.) chikamin mitlite kopa chikchik. (metal is on wagon) Shaw must mean a wheel here, unless period English used tire to describe the metal band girding a wagon-wheel.
TIRED-till. Till also means heavy.
TOBACCO-bacca; kinootl; kinoos; kimoolth. Tobacco and tabak were also used. In English in the region today, snoos means tobacco snuff, so it may be that snoos is a variant of the Jargon words listed here.
TODAY-okoke sun. (this day)
TOGETHER-kunamokst. Kunamokst also means both.
TOLL-mamook. Mamook ordinarily means to do or to act or to use or to make. Shaw's context here may be in the sense of to take its toll. Still the sense of payment for passage is absent from mamook by itself.
TOMB-memaloose illahee. (dead land, dead earth) This ordinarily would mean grave. Memaloose house or house kah memaloose mitlite - building where the dead are - seem more precise.
TONGUE-la lang. La lang also meant language, in the same way that tongue can in English.
TONIGHT-okoke polaklie. (this evening, this night)
TOO-kunamokst. Kunamokst normally meant both or together; using it for too would require a context related to these meanings. The normal word for too in the sense of also was weght. The English sense of too as in too much would be kopet hiyu or some similar compound.
TOOTHACHE-sick kopa tooth; ledan; ienes. Ledan is an alternate borrowing of what is usually spelled as latah. Either it or ienes would be susbtituted for tooth in the phrase given.
TOP-(adj.) saghalie. (above, over)
TORN-kokshut; tlah tlah. Kokshut generally has a meaning of broken as well as a connotation of to be broken asunder, i.e. in many pieces. I have not seen tlah tlah elsewhere; tlah may be equivalent to klah - open, wide, clear from - as the kl and tl sounds are often interchangeable in Latin alphabet renderings of native prononciation.
TORPID-kahkwa memaloose. (like dead, as if dead)
TOSS-mahsh. (to throw)
TOUGH-skookum, kull. (strong, hard)
TOW-mamook haul. (to make haul, to make lift, i.e. to pull)
TOWEL-sail yaka mamook dly; seeowist pe lemah. (cloth it makes dry) I am not sure what Shaw meant here by including seeowist pe lemah - face and hands; he may mean that either or both may be appended to the given phrase. I would think that sail kopa seeowist or sail kopa lemah - cloth for face or cloth for hands - would also be correct.
TRACK-tzum kah. (marks where, i.e. where the markings are) Shaw here appears to mean the frontier sense of track, either a marked trail. barely a path, or the trail of signs or spoor, as in tracking someone or an animal.
TRADESMAN-mahkook man. (sell man, i.e. sales man, man doing business) Worker would be mamook man, a skilled worker would be man yaka kumtux mamook.
TRADITION-ahnkuttie tillikums klaska wawa. (old-time people they say) That is, how the elders and/or people in olden days say/said things should be.
TRAIL-ooahut; tenas ooahut. (way, road; little way, little path)
TRAMP-klatawa kopa lapea. (to travel by foot, to go by foot) The modern connotation of to stomp or to trudge is not intended in Shaw's meaning here, as to tramp simply meant to walk or to travel by walking. The noun a tramp as in a hobo might be man yaka cultus klatawa kah - man he aimlessly travels wherever.
TRANSFER-lolo. (to carry) Shaw here means to carry across a portage or an equivalent meaning, such as from boat to boat or boat to dock. To transfer in the sense of to exchange would have to be translated differently, depending on context.
TRANSGRESSOR-mesachie man. (evil man, bad man, i.e. man at fault)
TRANSLATE-mamook cooley kopa huloima lalang. (to make run in another language, to make go in a different tongue) Shaw's use of cooley - to run, to flow - here seems to mean something along the lines of simultaneous translation. Mamook kumtux kopa huloima lalang - to make understood in another language - seems also appropriate but does not carry the sense of immediate running translation.
TRAP-la piege; trap; la peage; kwaita. Kwaita is, I think, a misprint; elsewhere Shaw gives kwalta.
TRASH-cultus iktas. (useless things, worthless stuff)
TRAVEL-klatawa; cooley. (to go, to travel; to run, to go)
TRAVELER-man yaka hiyu cooley. (man he much goes, i.e. man who gets around a lot, man who travels a lot)
TREACHEROUS-hyas tseepie; mesachie. (great mistake; evil)
TREASURE-tillikum yaka kloshe nanitch dolla. (person he watches well money) Shaw's meaning here is the verb to treasure. The noun treasure might be translated ikta hyas kloshe - something greatly good - or ikta hyas mahkook - something very expensive, unless gold or other valuables were specified.
TREE-stick. Stick also meant wood, stick, or branch.
TREE, FALLEN-whim stick. (lit. fallen tree)
TREMBLE, SHAKE-hullel; hulul.
TRIBE-lalang. Shaw seems quite mistaken here; the conventional word for any people or kindred was simply tillikum(s). His use of lalang here may be based in the common misconception that the language groups of the Northwest constituted tribal divisions.
TRICK-tseepie mamook. (mistake make, mistake do) The difference here in word order from mamook tseepie may make the difference between to trick and to make a mistake.
TRIM-(v.) mamook cut; mamook kloshe. (to make a cut; to make good, i.e. to repair, to fix)
TROT, TO-tehteh. Only used concerning horses.
TROUBLE-(v.) mamook trouble; mamook till tumtum. (to make trouble; to make heavy thoughts) Note that the passive to be troubled would be iskum till tumtum more likely than than chako till tumtum, which would mean to become troubled. To be in trouble would be iskum trouble.
TROUT-trout; tenas fish; tzum salmon; tenas salmon. (little fish; spotted salmon; little salmon) Although not strictly a Jargon word, kokanee is still a common word in the region today for a land-locked salmon, closely resembling trout.
TRUE-delate; halo kliminiwhit. (straight, correct; not a lie, not lying)
TRUTH-delate wawa. (true words, straight talk)
TRUNK-lacasset. (box, chest) Hyas lacasset would be appropriate for large trunks, as in steamer trunks.
TURN-killapie; howh. (to reverse, to revolve, to roll)
TURNING-lahlah. Note lah is equivalent to lagh, which means to tip or to tilt.
TWELVE-tahtlum pe mokst. (ten and two)
TWENTY-mokst tahtlum. (two tens)
TWENTY-ONE-mokst tahtlum pe ikt. (two tens and one)
TWILIGHT-tenas polaklie. (little night, early evening)
TWINE-tenas lope; klapite. (little rope)
TWIST-mamook killapie (showing how). (make turned, make roll, to make turn around)
TYRO-halo kumtux. (not understand, without knowledge) Tyro must be a period word for idiot or moron.
UGLY-cultus; wake toketie. (bad, distasteful, useless; not pretty, without beauty)
ULTIMATE-kimtah; halo huloima. (behind, i.e. last; not different, not strange) I do not understand Shaw's use of halo huloima here - perhaps it is ideomatic. Hyas kimtah would be the very last - perhaps also elip kimtah, although this may be redundant as it could mean before behind; it could, on the other hand, imply the penultimate.
UMBRELLA-tenas sail house kopa snass. (little cloth shelter for rain, little tent for rain) Residents of the Northwest know that umbrellas were only rarely used for sun.
UNABLE-wake skookum. (not strong, not capable)
UNACCUSTOMED, UNACQUAINTED-halo kumtux. (not known, does not have knowledge of)
UNAWARE-halo kumtux. (does not know, does not have knowledge of)
UNBELIEF-halo iskum kopa tumtum. (does not have anything in heart/mind) Here Shaw seems to be specifically referring to a lack of faith or the absence of values or morals. To not believe is simply halo tumtum or halo kumtux, the former referring more to mattes of the heart and spirit and soul, the latter to ideas and thoughts and knowledge.
UNBIND-mahsh kow. (to let go a knot, to undo something tied)
UNCEASING-kwonesum. (always, forever, everlasting)
UNCHRISTIAN-halo kahkwa Jesus. (not like Jesus, not Christ-like) This is a far nobler translation of un-Christian than this word has been known to be used for. Shaw's meaning her is obviously not chauvinistic, but made in reference to virtues such as charity, faith, compassion, and selflessness.
UNCIVILIZED-wild. This seems to a later loan-word. The meaning of wild or uncivilized, especially concerning people or tribes, was commonly rendered by lemolo, which could also be translated as renegade. although it did also have connotations of deranged and savage.
UNCLE-tot; uncle; papa or mama yaka ow; chee. (father or mother his/her brother) Tot may be a misprint; tat is a more common spelling. I have not seen chee, which normally means new or recent, with this meaning elsewhere. Uncles, especially maternal uncles, played a very important role in the lives of young native males among many Northwest peoples, and quite often served as foster fathers for most of a man's youth.
UNCLEAN-hiyu mesachie mitlite. (much evil is, much filth is)
UNCONSCIOUS-kahkwa memaloose. (like dead) Kahkwa moosum - like asleep - would also be correct.
UNCORK-mamook open. (to make open) The availability of other terms for to open - mamook hahlakl for example - suggests that this particular use of the loan-word open was peculiar to the opening of bottles and casks.
UNDER-keekwulee; keekwillie. Keekwulee also means beneath or below, and also was the common name for the pit-house dwellings of the Interior peoples.
UNDOUBTED-delate. (true, correct)
UNDRESS-mahsh iktas. (to take off clothes, to throw aside clothes) Also means to dispose of belongings and to put things outside.
UNDYING-halo memaloose. (without death, undead) More accurate to the usual English sense of undying would be kwahnesum halo memaloose - forever without death, immortal. Kwahnesum mitlite - forever existing, forever remaining - is another possibility, although not necessarily with the associations to mortality and death.
UNEQUAL-wake kahkwa. (not like, not the same as)
UNEXPECTED-(to me) nika tumtum halo yaka chako kahkwa. (I did not think it came so, I did not believe it would happen like that). Another way to put this might be in the context for something unlooked-for could be ikta chee klap - something newly found - or ikta halo nanitch - something unforeseen.
UNEXPLORED-halo klaksta nanitch. (no one has seen) More in context would be illahee kah halo klaksta nanitch - land where no one has looked. Illahee halo klaksta kumtux - land no one knows - is another possibility.
UNFASTEN-mahsh kow. (to unfasten a knot, to let go something tied up)
UNFAVORABLE-halo kloshe. (not good) Cultus is another possibility, depending on context, and was perhaps even more common in most cases, such as weather, circumstances, travel conditions, etc. Halo kloshe carries the connotation without favour, as in without good prospects.
UNFINISHED-halo kopet. (without stop, without being ended) On the other hand, kopet can mean still or yet, i.e. ongoing.
UNGODLY-mesachie. (evil, bad, malicious) Someone who has no faith in God would be man (tillikum) yaka halo tumtum kopa Saghalie Tyee - man (person) who has no feelings for God.
UNHAPPY-sick tumtum. (sick feeling, sick in spirit) Sick tumtum is also used to refer to grief and grieving and other negative feelings.
UNINTELLIGIBLE-halo kumtux. (not understood, no understanding)
UNIT-ikt. (one, i.e. one of) Kopet ikt - only one - would be appropriate in some contexts.
UNITE-mamook join; mamook kunamokst; chako kunamokst. (to make join; to make together; to come together)
UNIVERSAL-konaway. (everything, all, all things)
UNIVERSE-konoway illahee konaway kah. (all things everywhere) Konoway by itself could mean the same thing. Shaw here appears to be trying to explain astronomy.
UNJUST-wake delate. (not straight, not correct,not true i.e. not right, not fair)
UNKIND-wake kloshe. (not good, not nice, not right)
UNKNOWN-halo kumtux. (not known, not understood)
UNLAWFUL-wake kloshe kopa law. (not good under law, not right according to law)
UNLOAD-mahsh iktas. (to let go of things, to discharge goods) This can also mean to undress, to put things outside, and a wide range of other things, depending on contex, as both mahsh and iktas have a wide array of possible meanings.
UNLOCK-mamook halo lekleh (to make without key, i.e. to undo the key) Mamook hahlakl - make open - seems more true to the usual context of unlock.
UNMEANING-cultus; pelton. (worthless, unnecessary, idle; foolish, stupid) I think Shaw's context of unmeaning here is senseless, without consideration.
UNNOTICED-halo nanitch. (not seen) Ipsoot - hidden, concealed - is another possibility in some contexts.
UNPOPULAR-konaway tillikums halo ticky kahkwa. (all people do not like that, everybody not want that)
UNSALABLE-wake kloshe kopa mahkook. (not good for sale, not good for business)
UNTIE, TO-mahsh kow; mamook stoh. (to unfasten a knot, to let go something tied up; to make untied, to make loose)
UNTOLD-halo wawa. (not said, not told)
UNTRUE-kliminawhit. (lie, falsehood) Kliminawhit, literally meaning smooth object or smooth person, can also mean liar or one who lies, as well as false thing.
UNTURNED-halo killapie. (not turned, not overturned) The only context for unturned that I can think of that Shaw must have meant is the saying to leave no stone unturned. Perhaps mitlite halo killapie stone would suit the intent.
UNUSUAL-huloima. (strange, different, odd) Halo kahkwa kwonesum - not like always, not as usual - is another possibility, though a bit more awkward.
UNWILLING-halo ticky. (not want, not like)
UNWIND-mamook killapie. (to make turned) Note that this can also mean its own opposite, as in to wind and to twist. Since killapie means to reverse as well as to turn, it should not be so surprising that compounds using it have two apposite meanings.
UNWISE-pelton. (fool, foolish) Halo kumtux or wake kumtux - without understanding - would also have been correct.
UNWHOLESOME-wake kloshe. (not good, not nice) Mesachie or cultus might also have been appropriate depending on context.
UNWORTHY-halo kloshe; wake kloshe; mesachie. (not good, without goodness, evil, bad) Halo nem - without reputation, without honour - might have been appropriate in some contexts.
UP-saghalie. (above, over, on top)
UPBRAID-cultus wawa. (worthless words, useless speech) For scold and admonish, Shaw gives skookum wawa - strong words, strong speech. Apparently upbraid in the period context may have meant a pointless scolding, or an unnecessary dressing-down.
UPHEAVE-mahsh kopa saghalie. (to throw above, to toss up) An upheaval would better be translated by using killapie - to turn over - or perhaps hyas killapie - to greatly turn over, to turn over very much.
UPHOLD-mamook help, mamook skookum. (to do help, i.e. to support; to make strong, i.e. to fortify, to shore up)
UPLAND-saghalie illahee. (up country, high land) The compound saghalie illahee only acquired the context of heaven - the sky country, the land above - after its adaption to the language of Christian theology.
UPON-saghalie kopa. (on top of)
UPPER, UPPERMOST-elip saghalie. (more high, more above, first on top)
UPRIGHT-delate; klosh; mitwhit. Delate has the connotation of straightness or correctness, kloshe of something being correctly in place or stable in position, or perhaps stalwart. Klosh is a misprint in Shaw, although accurate enough as far as the Jargon's variable prononciation went. Mitwhit means to stand, specifically to stand upright.
UPSET, UPSIDE DOWN-killapie. (to reverse, to turn over, i.e. reversed, turned over)
UPWARD-saghalie. (above, over, on top)
URGE-skookum wawa. (strong words, strong talk)
URINATE-mahsh chuck. (to throw water, to expel water, to let go of water, i.e. to make water)
USE-mamook use. Mamook can mean to use all by itself, especially in combination with the name of an implement or tool.
USEFUL-kloshe. (good, i.e. good for or works OK)
USELESS-cultus. Cultus also means worthless, bad, broken, meaningless, and has a host of ideomatic uses, especially in compounds.
USUAL-kahkwa kwanesum. (as always, like always)
UTENSIL-ikta. (thing, object) More precise would be, for kitchen utensil, a compound such as ikta kopa mamook muckamuck - thing for making food.